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Version 1
21. April 2016.
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21. April, 2016

Urban water safety plan template for Bhutan

21. April, 2016

Provides a template WSP for urban water supply system in Bhutan based on the WSP manual. Contains text and tables as examples, which should be reviewed and revised to reflect system-specific conditions.

Version 2
1. November 2011.
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by Enviromental Health Control Section et al., 01. November, 2011

Water Safety Plan Handbook: for rural water supply systems

by Enviromental Health Control Section et al., 01. November, 2011

Provides customized guidance on implementing WSPs in rural water supply systems tailored to the Malaysian context

Version 2
28. October 2008.
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by WSP, 28. October, 2008

Johannesburg, South Africa Case Study

by WSP, 28. October, 2008

This document describes the learnings from water safety plan development and implementation by Rand Water in South Africa, providing valuable field experiences from the process.

Version 1
1. January 2009.
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by Lans Rosen and Andreas Kindhe , 2009

Comprehensive Framework for integrated risk management in WSP

by Lans Rosen and Andreas Kindhe , 2009

Risk assessment and risk prioritisation are critical elements of a Water Safety Plan. However the process can be complex, require considerable resources and take a long time. Therefore before establishing a risk management system it is important to be clear on the most cost effective approach to meet local priorities and needs. This document provides an overview of the TECHNEAU Generic Framework, which is a comprehensive structure for integrated risk management from catchment to consumer in Water Safety Plans, considering both water quality and water quantity

Version 1
19. February 2019.
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by Giuliana Ferrero et al., 31. January, 2019

Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review.

by Giuliana Ferrero et al., 31. January, 2019

The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implementation needs. Many countries and regions lack case examples, legal requirements, and training resources for WSPs, corresponding to widespread capacity shortfall in the water supply sector. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on capacity building and training for WSPs, with the goal of providing recommendations for multiple stakeholder groups at the scales of individual utilities, national governments, and intermediate units of governance. We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.

Version 1
11. May 2016.
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by WHO/IWA, 2009

Plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau

by WHO/IWA, 2009

En 2004, les Directives de l'OMS pour la qualité de l'eau de boisson recommandaient que les fournisseurs d'eau potable développent et mettent en œuvre des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau (PGSSE) afin d'évaluer et de gérer systématiquement les risques.
Ce manuel répond à cette recommandation en décrivant de façon claire et en termes pratiques, comment développer et mettre en œuvre des plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau. Onze modules de formation fournissent des conseils par étape. Chaque module présente une étape clé dans le processus de développement et de mise en application des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau.

Version 1
24. September 2010.
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by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

The Economics of Drinking Water Safety Planning: An Advocacy Tool

by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.

Version 2
21. April 2016.
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by WHO, 1997

Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (2nd Ed. Volume 3 – Surveillance and control of community supplies

by WHO, 1997

This publication describes the methods used in the surveillance of drinking-water quality in the light of the special problems of small-community supplies, particularly in developing countries, and outlines the strategies necessary to ensure that surveillance is effective. It is also concerned with the linkage between surveillance and remedial action and with the form that remedial action should take.

Version 0
19. May 2016.
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by Luca Lucentini et al., 2014

Linee guida per la valutazione e gestione del rischio nella filiera delle acque destinate al consumo umano secondo il modello dei Water Safety Plans .

by Luca Lucentini et al., 2014

One decade ago, the World Health Organization recommended that water suppliers developed and implemented Water Safety Plans (WSP) as the most
effective mean to assure the quality of the water supply and the protection of the health of consumers. This model, as transposed in this guideline, consists of the overall risk assessment and risk management from catchment to tap, to protect the water to be destined to human consumption and the system, as well
as to control any process potentially affecting water quality, with the aim of assuring on a continuous way the absence of physical, biological and chemical hazards in drinking water. Risk based approach will also facilitate the flexibility of hazards management of emerging contaminants which are not systematically monitored, and /or vulnerabilities of water supply systems to direct and indirect impacts due to climate change. The guidance is addressed to water suppliers and health authorities as well as to all the stakeholders interested in different way to the drinking water quality. Criteria, methods and procedures are here provided in clear and practical terms to develop and implement WSP in drinking water supplies in Italy, independently by their dimension and by the volumes of supplied water.

Version 1
22. March 2010.
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by AusAID and SOPAC , 22. March, 2010

Drinking Water Safety Planning: A practical guide for the Pacific Island countries

by AusAID and SOPAC , 22. March, 2010

This document is a guideline for development and implementation of Water Safety Plans approach in the Pacific. It is primarily for water supply managers, engineers and operators and introduces a more proactive way of managing drinking water supplies through a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach. Implementing DWSPs helps achieve a more effective drinking water supply system.

Version 1
5. October 2016.
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by WHO SEARO, 01. September, 2015

Water Safety Plans – Helping people in South Asia access safer, cleaner water

by WHO SEARO, 01. September, 2015

Information and advocacy brochure from WHO-SEARO briefly defining Water Safety Plans (WSPs), showing progress in WSP development in South East Asia Region, illustrating what WSPs deliver to suppliers and users and providing ideas on what stakeholders' next steps might be.

Version 1
1. November 2011.
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by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Bhutan: Water safety plan

by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Bhutan. This case study reports on key facts of the WSPs, and describes the status of water supply in Bhutan.

Version 1
8. November 2018.
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by Antonios Papadakis et al., 26. March, 2018

Legionella spp. Risk Assessment in Recreational and Garden Areas of Hotels

by Antonios Papadakis et al., 26. March, 2018

Several Travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases occur annually in Europe. Except from the most obvious sites (cooling towers and hot water systems), infections can also be associated with recreational, water feature, and garden areas of hotels. This argument is of great interest to better comprehend the colonization and to calculate the risk to human health of these sites. From July 2000–November 2017, the public health authorities of the Island of Crete (Greece) inspected 119 hotels associated with TALD, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network. Five hundred and eighteen samples were collected from decorative fountain ponds, showers near pools and spas, swimming pools, spa pools, garden sprinklers, drip irrigation systems (reclaimed water) and soil. Of those, 67 (12.93%), originating from 43 (35.83%) hotels, tested positive for Legionella (Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15 and non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. erythra, L. taurinensis, L. birminghamensis, L. rubrilucens). A Relative Risk (R.R.) > 1 (p < 0.0001) was calculated for chlorine concentrations of less than 0.2 mg/L (R.R.: 54.78), star classification (<4) (R.R.: 4.75) and absence of Water Safety Plan implementation (R.R.: 3.96). High risk (≥104 CFU/L) was estimated for pool showers (16.42%), garden sprinklers (7.46%) and pool water (5.97%).

Version 1
11. September 2017.
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by WHO, 11. September, 2017

Planifier la gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau pour l’approvisionnement en eau des petites communautés: Recommandations pour la gestion par étapes des risques liés à l’approvisionnement en eau potable des petites communautés

by WHO, 11. September, 2017

Les Directives de qualité pour l’eau de boisson de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommandent l'application d'une approche d'ensemble pour l'évaluation et la gestion des risques appelée «Plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau» afin d'assurer de la façon la plus efficace la sécurité des approvisionnements en eau. Cette approche est systématique, complète, rentable et adaptée à un large éventail de circonstances. Ainsi est-elle un outil important pour l'approvisionnement en eau des petites communautés.

Ce manuel a pour objet d’assurer la participation des communautés, de les rendre autonomes et de les guider dans l’élaboration et la mise en oeuvre de plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau pour leurs réseaux d’eau de boisson.

Il présente des recommandations sur la façon de développer et de mettre en œuvre un PGSSE au moyen de 6 tâches réalisables. En suivant l'approche telle qu'elle est décrite dans ce manuel, les petites communautés peuvent améliorer la gestion de leur système d'approvisionnement et obtenir progressivement des améliorations durables de la qualité de l'eau potable.

Version 1
2. January 2011.
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by Engeeners Without Borders Australia , 02. January, 2011

SNAKES & LADDERS – Water Safety Plan version in Nepal

by Engeeners Without Borders Australia , 02. January, 2011

‘WSP Snakes & Ladders’ was developed according to the hazards identified and hazard control measures developed for this particular community in Nepal. The game could easily be adapted to any drinking water system or community, ensuring that the hazards and control measures are locally appropriate.

Version 2
1. November 2010.
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by Federica Gerber et al., 01. November, 2010

An Economic Assessment of Drinking Water Safety PlanningKoror-Airai, Palau

by Federica Gerber et al., 01. November, 2010

This document describes a preliminary economic assessment of the Koror-Airai, Palau drinking water safety plan. The information generated is to be used to inform stakeholders in Palau of the rewards from supporting the DWSP approach, demonstrating the potential benefits of investing in the Plan.

Version 1
4. December 2017.
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by World Health Organization (Regional Office for South-East Asia), 03. July, 2017

Operational Monitoring Plan Development: A guide to strengthening operational monitoring practices in small- to medium-sized water supplies

by World Health Organization (Regional Office for South-East Asia), 03. July, 2017

Practical guidance and training materials for small- and medium-sized water suppliers, and for those providing training and support to these suppliers, on strengthening operational monitoring practices – a core element of water safety planning. Training materials include a facilitator’s guide and PowerPoint slides.

Version 2
1. October 2013.
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by WHO, 01. October, 2013

Maynilad Water: Water Safety Plans

by WHO, 01. October, 2013

Describes the formulation of a Water Safety Plan by Maynilad Water Services, Inc. Philippines.

Version 1
26. May 2017.
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by Rory Moses McKeown, 26. May, 2017

WSP template for organized water supplies in Liberia

by Rory Moses McKeown, 26. May, 2017

This WSP template as been developed and customized specifically for use in organized (i.e. urban) water supplies in Liberia. Text in yellow provides an example of how to complete each section. This template may be considered for use in other countries and regions, but must first be reviewed and adapted to suit the local context.

Version 1
20. March 2013.
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by WHO et al., 04. March, 2013

Water safety plan quality assurance tool

by WHO et al., 04. March, 2013

This tool is designed to guide organized drinking-water supplies through a WSP self-assessment to determine the WSP’s completeness and the effectiveness of its implementation. It aims to support the development, implementation and assessment of WSPs by systematically highlighting the areas where progress is being made and opportunities for improvement.

Version 2
1. August 2009.
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by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

Intermittent supplies and water quality

by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

This document highlights water quality risks from supplies that do not continuously supply water and outlines examples of measure to control these risks.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Marilyn Maycock USEPA, 19. May, 2016

ppt – Quality Systems: ISO/IEC 17025:2005

by Marilyn Maycock USEPA, 19. May, 2016

Powerpoint presentation for the US EPA with an introduction to the ISO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard for calibration and testing labs - including its purpose and how to ensure the quality system are effective

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Bob Breach , 01. December, 2008

Emergency management plan checklist

by Bob Breach , 01. December, 2008

Preparation of a well documented and up to date emergency management plan is an essential component of an effective incident response framework. The structure and content can only be determined by each water supply taking account of a wide range of different local factors. However this document provides a checklist of those items which need to be considered.

Version 2
28. September 2009.
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by MWH , 28. September, 2009

Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Yarra Valley Water, Australia

by MWH , 28. September, 2009

This case study provides an example of a water supplier in Australia which has undertaken research to understand consumer expectations in relation to water quality. This includes the use of surveys and focus groups. It also describes the approach the company takes to handling, recording, and reviewing complaints.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by MWH , 01. August, 2009

Conducting consumer surveys of water acceptability

by MWH , 01. August, 2009

Communication with consumers is a key part of assessing and promoting the acceptability of drinking water supplies with consumers. The evaluation of consumer acceptability and knowledge of consumer complaints are important components of assessing the overall effectiveness of a WSP and an essential part of the verification of a WSP. This document summarises the main approaches to the collection and analysis of consumer acceptability through surveys.

Version 2
24. September 2010.
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by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

Economics of WSP: an advocacy tool

by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.

Version 1
18. August 2017.
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by World Health Organization, 14. August, 2017

Potable reuse: Guidance for producing safe drinking-water

by World Health Organization, 14. August, 2017

In response to growing pressures on available water resources, potable reuse represents a practical source of drinking-water in many circumstances.

This document describes how to apply appropriate management systems to produce safe drinking-water from municipal wastewater. Information is provided on specific aspects of potable reuse, including the quality and protection of source wastewaters, types of control measures, monitoring considerations and public acceptance. Application of potable reuse is also illustrated through a number of case studies.

The guidance is intended for use by drinking-water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the WHO’s Guidelines for drinking-water quality and, in particular, the framework for safe drinking-water, including water safety plans. This publication may also be useful to others with an interest in potable reuse including environmental health and water resource professionals.

Version 2
28. September 2009.
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by MWH , 28. September, 2009

Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Lyonnaise des Eaux, France

by MWH , 28. September, 2009

This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in France has established a system to collect consumer acceptability data via a group of volunteers. It provides one particular approach to the collection of opinions on the taste and odour of water supplied.

Version 1
1. September 2009.
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by Department of health Victoria et al., 2011

Case Study on Water Safety Plan Implementation and Lessons Learned: WSP auditing Victoria Australia

by Department of health Victoria et al., 2011

This case study describes the implementation of WSP and lessons learned in Victoria Australia. This case study has a specific focus on auditing WSPS.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Angella Rinehold (WHO et al., 25. August, 2015

Rural WSP template for Sri Lanka

by Angella Rinehold (WHO et al., 25. August, 2015

This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Sri Lanka which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.

Version 1
8. November 2016.
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by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al., 01. July, 2016

Protecting surface water for health

by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al., 01. July, 2016

Protecting surface water for health provides a structured approach to understanding surface waters and their catchments to support the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risks, and the development of management strategies for their control, as a basis for providing safe drinking-water.

The book provides guidance and supporting information on the development and application of water safety plans, which represent best practice to address the assessment and control of surface-water hazards in drinking-water catchments.

Version 1
20. March 2010.
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by WHO, 01. March, 2010

Water safety plans: managing drinking-water quality for public health

by WHO, 01. March, 2010

A brief note on the rationale for the WSP approach, the potential benefits for various stakeholder groups, and the value of incorporating WSPs into policies and regulations.

Version 1
2. December 2007.
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by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services , 02. December, 2007

Household Water Use and Health Survey for the WSP Linden Guyana

by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services , 02. December, 2007

This Household Water Use and Health Survey was therefore conducted as part of the Water Safety Plan for Linden, Guyana in order to understand the fate of water from the time it reaches the home to the point of consumption. It illustrates the sampling, the household visits, the water testing, the data management and discusses the results from the survey.

Version 1
1. November 2011.
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by DASS-NC Service santé environnement , 01. November, 2011

Plans de Sécurité Sanitaire des Eaux de consommation (PSSE) Etudes de cas en Nouvelle-Calédonie

by DASS-NC Service santé environnement , 01. November, 2011

French version. This document describes the WSP implementation process in New Caledonia (French territory in the Pacific Ocean) for 13 municipalities that started in 2008. It describes the risk assessment and management tools used, the benefits achieved, the challenges and solutions to those challenges and the overall lessons learned.

Version 1
21. February 2019.
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by David Sutherland et al., 29. August, 2017

Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia

by David Sutherland et al., 29. August, 2017

In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

Version 0
21. February 2019.
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by Karen Setty et al., 20. February, 2019

Comparative evaluation of risk management frameworks for U.S. source waters

by Karen Setty et al., 20. February, 2019

The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk management frameworks and tools might benefit U.S. utilities by combining a literature review with external utility interviews. Qualitative data provided a basis for categorical assignments of goodness of fit
with each of 24 framework evaluation criteria across five categories. Weighted integration using stakeholder input provided a relative ranking of applicability, later validated at a decision-making workshop. Hybridization of the American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association (ANSI/AWWA G300) source water protection standard and World Health Organization Water Safety Plan guidance was recommended to develop a comprehensive risk management approach for U.S. source waters. Cost–benefit components of other guidance materials were recommended to incorporate financial considerations into risk ranking and mitigation decisions.

Version 2
1. September 2006.
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by World Plumbing Council and WHO , 01. September, 2006

Health aspects of plumbing

by World Plumbing Council and WHO , 01. September, 2006

This text describes the processes involved in the design, installation and maintenance of effective plumbing systems. It also examines the microbiological, chemical, physical and financial risks associated with plumbing and emphasizes the importance of measures to conserve supplies of safe drinking-water. It is aimed at administrators and plumbers working in areas that are served by a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system, or are about to install a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system.

Version 2
2. December 2007.
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by WSP, 02. December, 2007

Household water use and health assessment Spanish Town Jamaica

by WSP, 02. December, 2007

This case study describes a randomized household survey and the collection and testing of drinking water samples from sources (household tap, public standpipe, rainwater, etc.) and household storage containers in Spanish Town Jamaica, with linkages to water safety planning.

Version 2
8. June 2010.
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by Asian Development Bank et al., 08. June, 2010

WOPs Manila and Danang on Water quality improvement

by Asian Development Bank et al., 08. June, 2010

Da Nang Water Supply Company (DAWACO) and Manila Water Company, Inc. (Manila Water) engaged in a water operator partnership (WOP) to help DAWACO meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards for water quality in their pipe network. Through the partnership, 20,000 residents received improved access to water, and DAWACO increased staff capacity to scale up similar improvements in the remainder of DAWACO’s service area.

Version 1
1. September 2007.
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by Therrence Thompson et al., 01. September, 2007

Chemical safety of drinking-water: Assessing priorities for risk management

by Therrence Thompson et al., 01. September, 2007

This text provides guidance on the chemical safety of drinking-water. Chemical contaminants of drinking-water are often considered a lower priority than microbial contaminants, because adverse health effects from chemical contaminants are generally associated with long-term exposures, whereas the effects from microbial contaminants are usually immediate. Nonetheless, chemicals in water supplies can cause very serious problems. The objective of this text is to help users at national or local level to establish which chemicals in a particular setting should be given priority in developing strategies for risk management and monitoring of chemicals in drinking-water. The document will be useful to public health authorities, those responsible for setting standards and for surveillance of drinking-water quality, and to water supply agencies responsible for water quality management. In particular, this publication will be applicable in settings where information on actual drinking-water quality is limited, which is the case in many developing countries and in rural areas of some developed countries.