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Version 1
18. August 2017.
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by World Health Organization, 14. August, 2017

Potable reuse: Guidance for producing safe drinking-water

by World Health Organization, 14. August, 2017

In response to growing pressures on available water resources, potable reuse represents a practical source of drinking-water in many circumstances.

This document describes how to apply appropriate management systems to produce safe drinking-water from municipal wastewater. Information is provided on specific aspects of potable reuse, including the quality and protection of source wastewaters, types of control measures, monitoring considerations and public acceptance. Application of potable reuse is also illustrated through a number of case studies.

The guidance is intended for use by drinking-water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the WHO’s Guidelines for drinking-water quality and, in particular, the framework for safe drinking-water, including water safety plans. This publication may also be useful to others with an interest in potable reuse including environmental health and water resource professionals.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Marilyn Maycock USEPA, 19. May, 2016

ppt – Quality Systems: ISO/IEC 17025:2005

by Marilyn Maycock USEPA, 19. May, 2016

Powerpoint presentation for the US EPA with an introduction to the ISO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard for calibration and testing labs - including its purpose and how to ensure the quality system are effective

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Mark Rodgers - USEPA, 19. May, 2016

ppt – The Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans

by Mark Rodgers - USEPA, 19. May, 2016

Powerpoint presentation from the USEPA on the Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans. The critical elements to laboratory support as well as he linkages between Water Safety Plan implementation and laboratory support are explained.

Version 1
4. December 2017.
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by World Health Organization (Regional Office for South-East Asia), 17. July, 2017

Principles and Practices of Drinking-water Chlorination: A guide to strengthening chlorination practices in small- to medium-sized water supplies

by World Health Organization (Regional Office for South-East Asia), 17. July, 2017

Practical guidance and training materials for small- and medium-sized water supplies, and for those providing training and support to these suppliers, on strengthening chlorination practices – a common improvement need identified through the WSP process in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. Training materials include a facilitator’s guide and PowerPoint slides, and basic standard operating procedures and calculation sheets for effective and safe chlorination. The materials are based on training programmes delivered in the regions.

Version 1
20. March 2006.
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by World Health Organization, 2006

Protecting groundwater for health: managing the quality of drinking-water sources

by World Health Organization, 2006

Provides guidance for health, environment and water sector professionals on the application of risk management approaches to protect groundwater sources of drinking-water, presenting a structured approach to analyzing hazards to groundwater quality, assessing and prioritizing the risks they pose, and developing management strategies for their control.

Version 1
8. November 2016.
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by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al., 01. July, 2016

Protecting surface water for health

by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al., 01. July, 2016

Protecting surface water for health provides a structured approach to understanding surface waters and their catchments to support the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risks, and the development of management strategies for their control, as a basis for providing safe drinking-water.

The book provides guidance and supporting information on the development and application of water safety plans, which represent best practice to address the assessment and control of surface-water hazards in drinking-water catchments.

Version 1
8. November 2016.
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by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al.,

Protecting surface water for health: Editable checklists and tables to support catchment inspection

by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al.,

Protecting surface water for health provides a structured approach to understanding surface waters and their catchments to support the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risks, and the development of management strategies for their control, as a basis for providing safe drinking-water.

Editable versions of the catchment and pollution assessment checklists and inventory tables that are presented in the book to support surface-water catchment inspection are presented here. Please refer to the introductory pages of Section 3.2 of Protecting surface water for health for guidance on how to use these checklists and tables to perform a catchment assessment (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/pswh/en/).

Version 1
1. December 2008.
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by Bob Breach , 01. December, 2008

Rapid gravity filters-water quality benefits and risks

by Bob Breach , 01. December, 2008

Rapid gravity filters are used extensively in many waterworks across the world where they provide a critical part of the water purification process. This document summarises the basic functions and operation of such filters and identifies possible risks to water quality which need to be assessed and managed as part of a treatment water safety plan.

Version 3
18. December 2017.
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by WHO, 2016

Risk Matrix – Example of Semi-Quantitative Matrix

by WHO, 2016

Example of a semi-quantitative risk matrix to classify the severity and likelihood of identified hazards and hazardous events.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Royal Government of Bhutan et al., 01. December, 2013

Rural Water Safety Plan (RWSP) Facilitator’s Guide

by Royal Government of Bhutan et al., 01. December, 2013

The facilitator‟s guide for the Rural Water Safety Plan Workshop has been prepared based on the Water Safety Planning for Small Community Water Supplies adapted to the Bhutanese context. This manual will describe how rural communities can deliver and sustain safe drinking water by developing and implementing WSPs for their own communities.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Angella Rinehold, 25. August, 2016

Rural WSP template for Cambodia

by Angella Rinehold, 25. August, 2016

This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Cambodia which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Angella Rinehold (WHO et al., 25. August, 2015

Rural WSP template for Sri Lanka

by Angella Rinehold (WHO et al., 25. August, 2015

This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Sri Lanka which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.

Version 1
9. November 2016.
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by Paul M Byleveld et al.,

Safe drinking water in regional NSW, Australia

by Paul M Byleveld et al.,

The New South Wales (NSW) Public Health Act 2010 requires water suppliers to implement a drinking water quality assurance program that addresses the ‘Framework for management of drinking water quality’ in the Australian drinking water guidelines. NSW Health has recognised the importance of a staged implementation of this requirement and the need to support regional water utilities. To date, NSW Health has assisted 74 regional utilities to develop and implement their management systems. The Public Health Act 2010 has increased awareness of drinking water risk management, and offers a systematic process to identify and control risks. This has benefited large utilities, smaller suppliers, and remote and Aboriginal communities. Work is continuing to ensure implementation of the process by private suppliers and water carters.

Version 1
2. January 2011.
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by Engeeners Without Borders Australia , 02. January, 2011

SNAKES & LADDERS – Water Safety Plan version in Nepal

by Engeeners Without Borders Australia , 02. January, 2011

‘WSP Snakes & Ladders’ was developed according to the hazards identified and hazard control measures developed for this particular community in Nepal. The game could easily be adapted to any drinking water system or community, ensuring that the hazards and control measures are locally appropriate.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

South Africa The development of a generic water safety plan for small community water supply

by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

This document describes development of a Water Safety Plan with a background focus on Africa.

Version 2
1. October 2007.
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by WSP, 01. October, 2007

Spanish Town, Jamaica Case Study

by WSP, 01. October, 2007

Presents the WSP for Spanish Town, Jamaica, which may provide an example approach for WSP development for WSP community at an early stage of WSP development

Version 1
18. September 2018.
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by WHO et al., 18. September, 2018

Strengthening operations & maintenance through water safety planning: A collection of case studies

by WHO et al., 18. September, 2018

This document presents case studies from lower and higher income settings around the world that highlight O&M benefits resulting from WSP implementation. These case studies contribute to a growing body of information on the outcomes of water safety planning and may be useful in building support for WSPs among water sector senior managers, operational staff and other stakeholders.

Version 1
7. June 2016.
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by Luca Rondi et al., 14. August, 2015

Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

by Luca Rondi et al., 14. August, 2015

The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.

Version 1
20. March 2017.
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by World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe et al.,

Taking policy action to improve small-scale water supply and sanitation systems. Tools and good practices from the pan-European Region

by World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe et al.,

Presents policy-makers with a range of regulatory, planning, financial and educational instruments to support effective policy and promote good practice (including water safety planning) to improve small-scale water supply and sanitation systems.

This publication aims to inspire practitioners and policy-makers who develop water supply and sanitation policies and programmes at the national or subnational levels to consider improvement actions that they can adapt for their own circumstances. It further assists policy-makers in formulating specific targets for small-scale systems and in planning concrete actions for their achievement. Other stakeholders – such as aid and funding agencies, local governments and nongovernmental organizations – may also find the information relevant for their programmes and projects.

Version 1
6. December 2016.
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by Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technologies, 01. August, 2016

Technical Brief: Water Safety Plans and Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage

by Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technologies, 01. August, 2016

This Technical Brief, written by CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technologies), integrates both approaches and introduces the importance of water safety planning for small communities. It describes the benefits of including household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) in a water safety plan, and explains how the WSP approach can improve HWTS implementation.

It also provides an overview of the six water safety planning tasks for small communities, with considerations for integrating HWTS throughout the tasks.

Version 1
1. April 2011.
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by Gef et al., 01. April, 2011

Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation

by Gef et al., 01. April, 2011

This guidebook, released by UNEP Risoe Center, describes adaptation strategies in the categories of water conservation; storm water control and capture; resilience to water quality degradation; preparation for extreme weather events; diversification of water supply; and mitigation. It has been made widely available and will help both developed and developing countries understand means of increasing resilience to the uncertain effects of future climate change. The Water Institute at UNC provided technical and methodological expertise.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

The development of a generic Water Safety Plan for small community water supply

by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

This case study describes the development of Water Safety Plans in small community water supplies in South Africa. It describes the previous assessment methods as well as the eleven steps taken to develop and implement the WSP.

Version 1
24. September 2010.
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by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

The Economics of Drinking Water Safety Planning: An Advocacy Tool

by Talem Hasan and Federica Gerber , 24. September, 2010

This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.

Version 1
21. April 2016.
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by WHO, 2010

Think big, start small, scale-up: a road map to support country level implementation of water safety plans – ENGLISH

by WHO, 2010

This document provides a 'road map' to support country-level implementation of WSPs. It provides guidance for country planners on how to initiate and carry out WSP implementation.  The document outlines a series of steps which may guide how WSP implementation and scale-up of WSPs may be approached at a national level.

Version 0
24. May 2018.
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by Karen E. Setty et al., 03. April, 2018

Time series study of weather, water quality, and acute gastroenteritis at Water Safety Plan implementation sites in France and Spain

by Karen E. Setty et al., 03. April, 2018

Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, can help drinking water suppliers to proactively identify potential risks and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. Few studies have investigated long-term impacts of WSPs, such as changes in drinking water quality or public health; however, some evidence from high-income countries associates WSP implementation with a reduction in diarrheal
disease. To validate the previously observed linkages between WSPs and health outcomes, this time series
study examined site-specific relationships between water-related exposures and acute gastroenteritis rates at three locations in France and Spain, including the role of WSP status. Relationships between control or exposure variables and health outcomes were tested using Poisson regression within generalized additive models. Controls included suspected temporal trends in disease reporting. Exposures included temperature, precipitation, raw water quality, and finished water quality (e.g., turbidity, free chlorine). In France, daily acute gastroenteritis cases were tracked using prescription reimbursements; Spanish data aggregated monthly acute gastroenteritis hospital visits. The models identified several significant relationships between indicators of exposure and acute gastroenteritis. Lag times of 6–9 days (including transit time) were most relevant for hydrological indicators (related to precipitation, runoff, and flow) at the two French sites, indicative of viral pathogens. Flush events (defined as surface runoff after a two-week antecedent dry period) linked to nonpoint source pollution were associated with a 10% increase in acute gastroenteritis rates at one location supplied by surface water. Acute gastroenteritis rates were positively associated with elevated turbidity average or maximum values in finished water at locations supplied by both surface and groundwater, by about 4% per 1-NTU increase in the two-week moving average of daily maxima or about 10% per 0.1 NTU increase in the prior month’s average value. In some
cases, risk appeared to be mitigated by WSP-related treatment interventions. Our results suggest drinking water exposure is associated with some potentially preventable gastrointestinal illness risk in high-income regions.

Version 1
26. July 2018.
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by Government of Nepal et al., 02. October, 2017

Training Package on Climate Resilient Water Safety Plan (CR-WSP)

by Government of Nepal et al., 02. October, 2017

This training toolkit aims to support  roll-out of climate resilient WSPs in Nepal by capacitating national trainers. The training materials are based on international (WHO) and national (Department of Water Supply & Sanitation) best practices and experiences.

The training toolkit contains a “Facilitators handbook”, “Participants workbook” and presentations, to support the successful and consistent delivery of the national climate resilient WSP training program.

Version 1
1. October 2008.
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by WHO - Western Pacific Region , 01. October, 2008

Training workbook on Water Safety Planning Urban systems

by WHO - Western Pacific Region , 01. October, 2008

The objective of this workbook is to serve as a guide to facilitate WSP development for an organised water supply that is managed by a water utility or similar entity. WSPs can be tailored differently for each specific water supply system. This workbook is generic and is not specific to any particular country. It is anticipated that trainers in each country would develop their own WSP training material which would be linked directly to country drinking water standards and implementing guidelines as well as bring written in other appropriate languages.

Version 2
1. August 2009.
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by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

Treated water storage

by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

This document summarises the type of risks that might occur within treated water storages and how to control them.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

Unauthorised access to the network

by Bob Breach , 01. August, 2009

It is the experience of many water suppliers that illegal or unauthorised access to the distribution network can occur for a variety of reasons. This poses a number of water quality risks and can also create wider problems related to loss of revenue. This document briefly summarises the water quality risks associated with unauthorised access and how they can be mitigated.

Version 1
21. April 2016.
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21. April, 2016

Urban water safety plan template for Bhutan

21. April, 2016

Provides a template WSP for urban water supply system in Bhutan based on the WSP manual. Contains text and tables as examples, which should be reviewed and revised to reflect system-specific conditions.

Version 1
1. November 2011.
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by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Vietnam: Water safety plan

by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Vietnam. This case study highlights key WSP facts, and describes the water supply situation and regulation of WSP in Vietnam

Version 2
1. November 2009.
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by USEPA et al., 01. November, 2009

Water Quality application of composite correction in India

by USEPA et al., 01. November, 2009

This case study describes the study of the Composite Correction Programme (CCP) in three different cities in India to prepare for the implementation of Water Safety Plans. CCP is a water treatment plant optimization program that improves water treatment operation with limited capital investment by optimizing particle removal from water treatment plants.

Version 2
11. July 2017.
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by Karen Setty et al., 19. February, 2017

Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain

by Karen Setty et al., 19. February, 2017

Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes.
(Final report at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.004)

Version 1
20. March 2011.
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by World Health Organization, 07. March, 2011

Water safety in buildings

by World Health Organization, 07. March, 2011

Provides guidance for those responsible for managing water supply systems in buildings on applying the WSP approach to improve risk management and ensure water safety is maintained within the building.

This document provides guidance for managing water supplies in buildings where people may drink water; use water for food preparation; wash, shower, swim or use water for other recreational activities; or be exposed to aerosols produced by water-using devices, such as cooling towers. These uses occur in a variety of buildings, such as hospitals, schools, child and aged care, medical and dental facilities, hotels, apartment blocks, sport centres, commercial buildings and transport terminals.

Version 1
20. March 2014.
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by World Health Organization, 03. March, 2014

Water safety in distribution systems

by World Health Organization, 03. March, 2014

Water quality deterioration in distribution systems, mainly caused by inappropriate planning, design and construction or inadequate operation and maintenance and water quality control, has been linked to a significant proportion of the burden of waterborne and water-related illness. Stresses on these systems caused by rapid urbanization, population growth and aging infrastructure further exacerbates the problems. This reference tool has been developed to help water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the Water Safety Plan approach, enhance their risk assessment and management and investment planning for their water distribution systems.

Version 001
18. October 2017.
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by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 01. May, 2017

Water Safety Plan for Edfina Drinking Water Supply System, Behira Governorate – Egypt

by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 01. May, 2017

Edfina Drinking Water Treatment Plant was installed at Behira governorate, Egypt in 1998 and, due to increasing of water demand, the water authority intends to increase its capacity by installing a new conventional water treatment plant. However, water resources are suffering from many illegal activities in the catchment which deteriorate the raw water quality. The water higher community took the decision to develop a  WSP for Edfina supply system with the Holding Company in coordination with other water stakeholders (including the Irrigation ministry, Environmental ministry, Health Minisry, NGOs....). This document is the first version of the WSP and is shared as an example of a WSP approach adopted in Egypt.

Version 2
1. November 2011.
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by Enviromental Health Control Section et al., 01. November, 2011

Water Safety Plan Handbook: for rural water supply systems

by Enviromental Health Control Section et al., 01. November, 2011

Provides customized guidance on implementing WSPs in rural water supply systems tailored to the Malaysian context

Version 3
21. April 2016.
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by WHO et al., 2009

Water safety plan manual

by WHO et al., 2009

Water safety plans (WSPs) are the most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply. This WSP manual describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.

Version 1
20. March 2013.
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by WHO et al., 04. March, 2013

Water safety plan quality assurance tool

by WHO et al., 04. March, 2013

This tool is designed to guide organized drinking-water supplies through a WSP self-assessment to determine the WSP’s completeness and the effectiveness of its implementation. It aims to support the development, implementation and assessment of WSPs by systematically highlighting the areas where progress is being made and opportunities for improvement.

Version 1
13. April 2018.
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by Water Supplies Department et al., 02. April, 2018

Water safety plan template for residential care homes for the elderly

by Water Supplies Department et al., 02. April, 2018

This template is prepared based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO)  to assist the owner or the house management staff of a residential care home for the elderly with an independent internal plumbing system to develop and implement a Water Safety Plan (WSP) to enhance water safety.