Water safety plan manual
Water safety plans (WSPs) are the most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply. This WSP manual describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.
Checklist for auditing a drinking water treatment plant
This checklist is conceived as an on-site, concise tool to support the Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA) inspectors in performing a comprehensive audit of drinking water treatment plants. It covers both management and technical aspects of service provision in assuring adequate level of performance for health and environmental protection. The list is composed of 8 sections, encompassing:
- identification and service data
- local (outside) circumstances and security issues
- organization, human resources, procedures and training
- workplace safety, environmental and equipment conditions
- operations and maintenance
- power supply and ancillary services
- drinking water network
- laboratory, reporting and monitoring data
WSP template for hospitals in Hong Kong
This template is prepared based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) with an aim to assisting the management staff of a hospital to develop and implement Water Safety Plan (WSP) to enhance water safety. It covers the essential elements of WSPs and common requirements applicable to the plumbing layout of hospitals. In additional to the English version, this resource is also available in traditional Chinese and simplified Chinese.
Water safety planning: A roadmap to supporting resources
A guide to equitable water safety planning: Ensuring no one is left behind
The lack of access to safe drinking-water is felt disproportionately by those who are disadvantaged socially, economically, demographically or geographically, and explicit consideration of these groups is required to understand and address disparities.
This document describes how, with relatively modest efforts, the water safety plan (WSP) approach can bring tangible improvements in water quality and availability for all users. By providing step-by-step guidance for all WSP stakeholders, as well as good practice examples from a broad range of countries and contexts, this document serves as a practical tool to help achieve safe water for all.
The electronic version of the PowerPoint slides presented in Tool F of the document, available under “Downloads” above, is intended to facilitate the integration of equity considerations into standard WSP training events.
Rural Water Safety Plan – Instructions and Training Materials
Tailored guidance package to support rural water safety planning in Sri Lanka. Includes stepwise instructions for trainers to conduct a rural WSP training incorporating a field visit.
Compilation of potential hazardous events and their causes
This interactive tool supports the implementation of the WSP step of hazard assessment by providing an overview of hazardous events, including those relating to climate change. The compilation was piloted and adapted based on experiences gathered, and aims to support practitioners, particularly water suppliers, health agencies and consultants, in implementing WSPs for climate resiliance. It was piloted in large (urban), professionally managed water supplies in limited resource settings, however, can also be applied and adapted for water supplies in other settings. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list, and may need to be adapted for application in the local context. It is intended to complement existing comprehensive guidance for implementation by providing a tool for practical application.
Water safety planning training videos
Training videos on water safety planning are now available. The videos cover an introduction to water safety plan principles and steps, and water safety plan auditing. These videos are recordings from a bilateral training event organized by the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regional Offices, with support from WHO Headquarters. The content has been designed such that the global WSP community can benefit from viewing. For more information and to view the videos, visit the Water safety planning training videos page.
Risk assessment of small water supplies in lower-middle income settings
Set in Uganda, this short video documents how sanitary inspections can be applied as a basic risk management tool for small water supplies in resource limited settings. For more information, visit: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/department-civil-environmental-engineering/research/water-environment-and-health-engineering-group
Water safety plan audit training package
Water safety plans (WPS) have been implemented in every region of the world, and many implementing countries have included WSPs in drinking-water policies or regulations. Enforcement of WSP requirements, as well as general WSP success and sustainability, requires ongoing WSP auditing, i.e. independent and systematic checks of WSP completeness, implementation in practice and effectiveness.
This training package presents guidance on preparing for and conducting a WSP audit, covering such topics as the aim and role of auditing, audit criteria, audit timing and frequency and audit reporting. It provides practical tools to support auditors conduct successful audits for continuous WSP improvement.
Risk Matrix – Example of Semi-Quantitative Matrix
Example of a semi-quantitative risk matrix to classify the severity and likelihood of identified hazards and hazardous events.
Water Safety Plans
Water safety plans (WSPs) represent a holistic risk assessment and management approach covering all steps in the water supply process from the catchment to the consumer. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has formally recommended WSPs as a public health intervention to consistently ensure the safety of drinking water. These risk management programs apply to all water supplies in all countries, including small community supplies and large urban systems in both developed and developing settings. As of 2017, more than 90 countries had adopted various permutations of WSPs at different scales, ranging from limited-scale voluntary pilot programs to nationwide implementation mandated by legislative requirements. Tools to support WSP implementation include primary and supplemental manuals in multiple languages, training resources, assessment tools, and some country-specific guidelines and case studies.
Systems employing the WSP approach seek to incrementally improve water quality and security by reducing risks and increasing resilience over time. To maintain WSP effectiveness, water supply managers periodically update WSPs to integrate knowledge about prior, existing, and potential future risks. Effectively implemented WSPs may translate to positive health and other impacts. Impact evaluation has centered on a logic model developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as WHO-refined indicators that compare water system performance to pre-WSP baseline conditions. Potential benefits of WSPs include improved cost efficiency, water quality, water conservation, regulatory compliance, operational performance, and disease reduction. Available research shows outcomes vary depending on site-specific context, and challenges remain in using WSPs to achieve lasting improvements in water safety. Future directions for WSP development include strengthening and sustaining capacity-building to achieve consistent application and quality, refining evaluation indicators to better reveal linked outcomes (including economic impacts), and incorporating social equity and climate change readiness.
Water safety plan template including climate considerations for rural water supplies: United Rep. of Tanzania
This water safety plan (WSP) template was developed to support the integration of climate risks into the WSP approach in rural areas of the United Rep. of Tanzania. Examples are presented on how to complete the template, and the information should be considered and customized to the local context.
This template is based on WHO EURO (2014) Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities, but adapted to the local context.
This resource was developed as part of the Department for International Development (DFID, UK)-funded project on “Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH” which was implemented from 2013-2018 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Tanzania.
Documentary on WSP implementation
Beautiful short film on how to achieve safe drinking-water by Björn Weber, Oliver Meinborn and Grimme-price winner Ute Hilgeford. Launched by the World Health Organization on World Water Day 2019.
The film-makers accompany a community in the mountains of Tajikistan – where water safety plans have been introduced for the first time in Central Asia. It is a group of citizens who take matters into their own hands. An inspiring story of how a village invests their funeral fund on safer drinking-water.
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed.) – JAPANESE
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans.
Strengthening operations & maintenance through water safety planning: A collection of case studies
This document presents case studies from lower and higher income settings around the world that highlight O&M benefits resulting from WSP implementation. These case studies contribute to a growing body of information on the outcomes of water safety planning and may be useful in building support for WSPs among water sector senior managers, operational staff and other stakeholders.
WSP training package
The training package consists of three components, a facilitator handbook, a participant workbook and accompanying PowerPoint presentations. It is structured around 13 learning modules based on the WHO/IWA WSP Manual: Step by step risk management for drinking-water supplies and the WHO/IWA WSP Quality Assurance Tool.
Water safety planning for small community water supplies – ENGLISH
This manual is designed to engage, empower and guide communities in the WSP development and implementation process. Guidance is provided on how to develop and implement a WSP through six achievable tasks. By following the WSP approach as described in this manual, small communities can improve the management of their drinking-water systems to achieve incremental and sustainable improvements in their drinking-water quality.
Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities – ENGLISH
This field guide provides a step-by-step introduction to the WSP approach and a range of ready-to-use templates to assist those locally involved in rural water supply to develop and implement their own WSPs.
The field guide particularly addresses the rural community members responsible for the operation and management of their water supplies, as well as the staff of the local health and water supply offices responsible for safeguarding drinking-water quality and nongovernmental organizations that support drinking-water safety in rural communities.
How to prepare Water Safety Plans for community managed water supply systems in rural Nepal – ENGLISH
This package contains tools and resources for developing water safety plans (they could be considered "WaSH Safety Plans") in rural communities where the water and sanitation is managed by the community themself.
Whilst it was developed for Nepal, these tools may be applicable for community managed systems around the globe.
A Journey Towards Safe Drinking Water for All
This water safety plan country report for Sri Lanka shares the key learnings from the country's WSP journey and achievements. The lessons learned can support the broader WSP global community for successful and practical WSP implementation.
Capacity Training on Urban Water Safety Planning – Training Modules
These training materials have been developed by the South-East Asia Regional Office of WHO to be used either to train trainers or to train operators of water supply utilities or sector stakeholders. They are intended for use by governments, NGOs, private sector, academic institutions and individuals. They may be used intensively over three or five days or included in longer educational programs either as part of academic courses or as part of continuing professional development training. They comprise:
- Presenters Guide,
- Participant’s Handbook,
- PowerPoint slides notes for presenter and PowerPoint Handouts for participants,
- Worksheets and other resources for participants
- Table group worksheets for use during the training programme.
Иметь большие планы, начинать с малого, расширять масштабы Дорожная карта для оказания поддержки в реализации на уровне стран планов обеспечения безопасности воды
Предпринимая постоянные усилия по повышению безопасности питьевой воды и улучшению здоровья населения, многие страны запросили методические рекомендации о том, как внедрить и расширить масштабы реализации планов обеспечения безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Какой-то одной модели или одного способа, который можно было бы применить для того, чтобы приступить к реализации ПОБВ и затем расширить ее масштабы, нет. Однако накопленный опыт позволяет обозначить ряд шагов, или этапов, которые показывают, как это можно сделать.
Предлагаемая “Дорожная карта” для реализации ПОБВ предназначена для органов государственного управления и нормативного регулирования, которые отвечают за пересмотр действующих или разработку новых стратегий, программ и нормативов в области питьевого водоснабжения. Она также может оказаться полезной для негосударственных организаций, финансирующих учреждений и других структур, заинтересованных в улучшении имеющихся у них программ и практики работы.
Technical Brief: Water Safety Plans and Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage
This Technical Brief, written by CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technologies), integrates both approaches and introduces the importance of water safety planning for small communities. It describes the benefits of including household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) in a water safety plan, and explains how the WSP approach can improve HWTS implementation.
It also provides an overview of the six water safety planning tasks for small communities, with considerations for integrating HWTS throughout the tasks.
WSP template for rural water supplies in Ghana
This WSP template as been developed and customized specifically for use in rural water supplies in Ghana. Text in yellow provides an example of how to complete each section. This template may be considered for use in other countries and regions, but must first be reviewed and adapted to suit the local context.
A practical guide to auditing Water Safety Plans
This document provides guidance on developing and implementing a WSP auditing scheme, covering such topics as the aim and role of auditing, auditor training and certification, audit criteria, audit timing and frequency and audit reporting. The guidance document includes examples, tips, tools and case studies, and it serves as a practical resource for policy makers, government bodies responsible for drinking-water regulation or surveillance and water suppliers implementing WSPs.
Briefing Note-Water Safety Planning to improve public health, water security and climate resilience
The successful development and implementation of WSPs have many benefits common to all drinking water systems, with some that are unique to each system. The major benefit of implementation contributes to improving drinking water safety and quality. To achieve this WSPs provide a framework for risk reduction prevention of hazards and a better response to emergencies, which not only improves public health but can ensure better watershed management and resilience to climate impacts.
Training Package on Climate Resilient Water Safety Plan (CR-WSP)
This training toolkit aims to support roll-out of climate resilient WSPs in Nepal by capacitating national trainers. The training materials are based on international (WHO) and national (Department of Water Supply & Sanitation) best practices and experiences.
The training toolkit contains a “Facilitators handbook”, “Participants workbook” and presentations, to support the successful and consistent delivery of the national climate resilient WSP training program.
Guidelines for Drinking Water Safety Planning for West Bengal
This publication provides practical guidance and best practices on the stages of developing safe rural drinking water delivery service schemes in West Bengal and other areas in India.
Water safety planning is considered an international best practice for assessing and managing public health risks from drinking water supply systems. The Asian Development Bank, in close collaboration with the World health Organization, assisted in developing water safety planning guidelines for West Bengal under a project aiming to improve rural drinking water delivery service schemes in the state. The publication outlines phases of the water safety plan, which can also be applied to developing bulk water supply systems.
Guidelines for Drinking Water Safety Plans for Buildings in Hong Kong
Based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Water Supplies Department (WSD) of Hong Kong has recently developed guidelines and templates for Water Safety Plan (WSP) for Buildings. The guidelines and templates aim at assisting building owners or management agents to develop their own WSPs to enhance water safety in buildings by using a risk-based and multiple barrier approach. Implementation of WSP for buildings requires concerted efforts of building management and plumbing practitioners, including identifying and assessing potential risks of the inside service, deriving control measures and carrying out the corresponding checking and maintenance. In addition, the WSP will be verified and updated by the building management through periodic auditing and review. The guidelines and templates for general buildings and schools have been launched in September 2017 for voluntary adoption by building owners or management agents.
Guide pratique pour l’audit des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau
Ce guide vise à aider à l’élaboration et à la mise en œuvre de programmes d’audit des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau dédiés en définissant les principes et exigences les plus importants. C’est une ressource pratique à l’intention des décideurs politiques, des organismes chargés de la réglementation ou de la surveillance de l’eau potable, des distributeurs d’eau mettant en œuvre des plans de gestion de la sécurité, et tous autres professionnels du secteur s’intéressant à la question de l’audit de ces plans.
Assessing operational performance benefits of a Water Safety Plan implemented in Southwestern France
Aims: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs)
since 2004 as a means to reduce drinking water contamination and risks to human health.
These risk management programs have shown promise across several potential areas of
evaluation, such as economic benefits and regulatory compliance. Since WSPs are largely
carried out by people who interact with water treatment equipment and processes, operational
performance indicators may be key to understanding the mechanisms behind desirable WSP
impacts such as water quality and public health improvement.
Method: This study reports performance measures collected at a WSP implementation
location in southwestern France over several years.
Results: Quantitative assessment of performance measures supported qualitative reports from
utility managers. Results indicate significantly reduced duration of low-chlorine events at one
production facility and a significant decrease in customer complaints related to water quality,
manifesting reported improvements in operational performance and the customer service
Conclusion: The findings demonstrate some success stories and potential areas of future
performance tracking. Cyclical iteration of the WSP can help to achieve continuous quality
improvement. Successfully applied evaluation criteria such as the number of water quality
complaints or alarm resolution time might be useful across other locations.
Drinking Water Safety and Security Planning Template
A community focused WSP template to support drinking water safety and security planning in Fiji. This template is designed to make risk assessment easier for community WSP implementation.
Руководство по разработке и реализации плана обеспечения безопасности воды
В 2004 г. в опубликованном ВОЗ "Руководстве по обеспечению качества питьевой воды" поставщикам было рекомендовано разработать и осуществить планы обеспечения безопасности воды, чтобы можно было систематически оценивать риски и управлять ими. С того времени правительства и регулирующие органы, поставщики воды и практические работники все шире принимают на вооружение этот подход, однако ими была высказана просьба о дополнительных методических руководствах.
Данное руководство по разработке и реализации плана обеспечения безопасности воды является ответом на эту просьбу. В нем понятным языком описывается, как практически нужно разрабатывать и реализовывать такой план. В 11 учебных модулях даются пошаговые рекомендации, причем каждый модуль представляет собой один ключевой шаг в процессе разработки и реализации плана обеспечения безопасности воды.
Principles and Practices of Drinking-water Chlorination: A guide to strengthening chlorination practices in small- to medium-sized water supplies
Practical guidance and training materials for small- and medium-sized water supplies, and for those providing training and support to these suppliers, on strengthening chlorination practices – a common improvement need identified through the WSP process in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. Training materials include a facilitator’s guide and PowerPoint slides, and basic standard operating procedures and calculation sheets for effective and safe chlorination. The materials are based on training programmes delivered in the regions.
A role-playing game for practising stakeholder collaboration in Water Safety Plans
One of the challenges in the implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs) is stakeholder engagement. For this reason, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education has developed a role-playing game for practising stakeholder collaboration in WSP. The game can be used in WSP training or during educational activities for water safety and WSP at graduate and post-graduate level. Its goal is for participants to experience the importance of stakeholder engagement in WSPs, and particularly in the decision-making process when investing in the rehabilitation and maintenance of a drinking water supply system from catchment to consumers. Participants will experience how this process can be influenced by information exchange between stakeholders and how this will eventually lead to greater awareness when assembling the WSP team.
Developing Water Safety Plans Involving Schools – Introducing “Water Safety Plans” for small-scale water supply systems – Manual for teachers and pupils
The World Health Organisation (WHO) initiated the Water Safety Plans (WSP), which is to be considered as a part of the WHO or other guidelines or directives on drinking water quality. The WSP asks for an identification of risks, which could affect water safety and human health in every stage of the water supply. It is also necessary, however, to identify measures, which minimise and manage the risks have to be identified. A WSP should be discussed, developed and implemented with involvement of all stakeholders. The paper give an introduction into this important issue.
Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans (CR-WSP). Compilation of potential hazardous events and their causes
Climate-resilient water safety plans (CR-WSPs) extend the traditional WSP framework by also identifying and managing climate-related impacts on water supply systems to strengthen resilience. This compilation of information on hazardous events and their causes, including those related to climate impacts, aims to support practitioners, particularly water suppliers, health agencies and consultants, in implementing CR-WSPs. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list, and may need to be adapted for application in the local context.
CLIMATE RESILIENT WATER SAFETY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION – Guidelines for Urban Utility Managed Drinking Water Supplies
The purpose of these Ethiopian guidelines is to provide step-by-step guidance to the operators and managers of the large, medium and small urban water supplies with conventional water treatment systems on how to develop, implement, monitor, and review the water safety plans aimed at protecting human health. Furthermore, it serves as practical tool in identifying and addressing priority risks to the water quality and quantity, reliability and sustainability of the water supply system including risks related to current and future impacts of climate changes by taking into consideration available resources and capacities of the water supply system.
Water safety plan template for residential care homes for the elderly
This template is prepared based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist the owner or the house management staff of a residential care home for the elderly with an independent internal plumbing system to develop and implement a Water Safety Plan (WSP) to enhance water safety.