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Version 2
10. November 2015.
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by WHO et al., 10. November, 2015

A practical guide to auditing Water Safety Plans

by WHO et al., 10. November, 2015

This document provides guidance on developing and implementing a WSP auditing scheme, covering such topics as the aim and role of auditing, auditor training and certification, audit criteria, audit timing and frequency and audit reporting. The guidance document includes examples, tips, tools and case studies, and it serves as a practical resource for policy makers, government bodies responsible for drinking-water regulation or surveillance and water suppliers implementing WSPs.

Version 1
30. June 2017.
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by Hallvard Ødegaard et al., 30. June, 2014

Microbial barrier analysis (MBA) – a guideline

by Hallvard Ødegaard et al., 30. June, 2014

In order to safeguard the public against waterborne diseases, water utilities must secure that multiple, microbial barriers are provided for in their drinking water systems. In most water utilities disinfection of the water represents an important barrier, but microbial barriers may also be achieved by other actions, for example in the catchment area.

Based on experiences from Norway, Sweden and Finland, this guideline is a helpful tool for implementing Water Safety Plans. The guideline explains the "barrier concept" and assist water utilities as well as their their consultants in determining what actions to take to ensure that the microbial barriers in their systems are sufficient – and that the water is safe to drink.

Version 1
17. May 2016.
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by Maria J. Gunnarsdottir et al., 07. June, 2012

Benefits of Water Safety Plans: Microbiology, Compliance, and Public Health

by Maria J. Gunnarsdottir et al., 07. June, 2012

The article describes an Icelandic study to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea.

Version 1
26. July 2018.
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by Federal Ministry of Water et al., 01. July, 2015

Climate Resilient Water Safety Strategic Framework Ethiopia

by Federal Ministry of Water et al., 01. July, 2015

This framework provides the strategic blueprint to develop a climate orientated risk assessment and management approach for drinking-water supplies, from catchment to consumer.

Considered global best practice, WHO advocates for the WSP approach as the most consistent means to ensure the safe and reliable supply of safe drinking-water. Adapted to the Ethiopian context, this document outlines a roadmap for the national scale-up of climate resilient WSPs.

Version 1
1. November 2011.
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by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Nepal: Water safety plan

by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Under AusAid funding, WHO supported Water safety plan implementation in Nepal. This case study reports on key WSP facts, and describes the status of water supply.

Version 1
25. May 2016.
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by Dani J. Barrington et al.,

How to prepare Water Safety Plans for community-managed water supply systems in rural Nepal – Nepali

by Dani J. Barrington et al.,

This package has been developed for WaSH practitioners seeking to develop water (probably more correctly, WaSH) safety plans with rural communities who manage their own water and sanitation systems. Although the overall guide is in English, all of the resources to be used with the community are in Nepali.

Version 1
7. June 2016.
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by Luca Rondi et al., 14. August, 2015

Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

by Luca Rondi et al., 14. August, 2015

The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.

Version 1
2. November 2016.
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by J.F. Loret et al., 01. October, 2016

Assessing the costs and benefits of Water Safety Plans

by J.F. Loret et al., 01. October, 2016

A survey was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of the WSPs developed at 197 production units operated by the SUEZ Company and serving a total of 10.6 million consumers in France, Spain, Cuba, Morocco and Macao. The results demonstrate benefits in terms of confidence of clients and health agencies. The main benefits however consist of a better control of hazards, especially new hazards that were previously overlooked, and of the treatments steps which are deemed as the most important for water safety. As the progress achieved is essentially linked with unregulated contaminants, improvements in compliance rate were rarely observed after implementation of WSPs. It is supposed that better control of these hazards, together with improved process control, result in improved safety for the consumers.

Version 001
18. October 2017.
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by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 01. May, 2017

Water Safety Plan for Edfina Drinking Water Supply System, Behira Governorate – Egypt

by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 01. May, 2017

Edfina Drinking Water Treatment Plant was installed at Behira governorate, Egypt in 1998 and, due to increasing of water demand, the water authority intends to increase its capacity by installing a new conventional water treatment plant. However, water resources are suffering from many illegal activities in the catchment which deteriorate the raw water quality. The water higher community took the decision to develop a  WSP for Edfina supply system with the Holding Company in coordination with other water stakeholders (including the Irrigation ministry, Environmental ministry, Health Minisry, NGOs....). This document is the first version of the WSP and is shared as an example of a WSP approach adopted in Egypt.

Version 1
3. January 2017.
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by Ahmad Montazeri, 13. September, 2015

Development and implementation of water safety plans in Iran

by Ahmad Montazeri, 13. September, 2015

This presentation describes the development and implementation of WSP in Tabriz in Iran under the guidance of the World Health Organization Regional Office.

Version 1
18. October 2017.
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by Roger Singleton, 01. July, 2017

Drinking Water Safety and Security Planning Template

by Roger Singleton, 01. July, 2017

A community focused WSP template to support drinking water safety and security planning in Fiji. This template is designed to make risk assessment easier for community WSP implementation.

Version 1
19. July 2016.
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by Nguyen Lanh et al., 19. July, 2016

GUIDELINES ON WATER SAFETY INVESTMENT PLAN (WSIP) FOR APPLICATION IN IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER SAFETY PLAN PHASE 3 IN VIETNAM

by Nguyen Lanh et al., 19. July, 2016

Water supply companies may face challenges when developing an investment plan for implementation of WSPs, due to the relatively large number of objectives with limited available budget for funding. This draft publication aims to provide guidance for water service companies to develop an investment plan that can meet the most of basic requirements of a WSP in a most cost-effective manner.
This draft publication is currently under review, and we would welcome your feedback to WSPortal@iwahq.org.

Version 1
21. February 2017.
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by Oliver Schmoll et al., 01. June, 2014

Das Water-Safety-Plan-Konzept: Ein Handbuch für kleine Wasserversorgungen (The WSP concept: a manual for small water supplies)

by Oliver Schmoll et al., 01. June, 2014

The German Environment Agency and the Water Technology Centre published a manual for implementation of the WSP approach in small-scale water supplies in Germany in 2014, which complements the technical rule on WSPs of the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW) with practical explanations, recommendations, examples and supporting tools.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

South Africa The development of a generic water safety plan for small community water supply

by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

This document describes development of a Water Safety Plan with a background focus on Africa.

Version 1
1. August 2009.
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by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

The development of a generic Water Safety Plan for small community water supply

by Peter Thompson and Sameera Majam , 01. August, 2009

This case study describes the development of Water Safety Plans in small community water supplies in South Africa. It describes the previous assessment methods as well as the eleven steps taken to develop and implement the WSP.

Version 1
1. October 2008.
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by WHO - Western Pacific Region , 01. October, 2008

Training workbook on Water Safety Planning Urban systems

by WHO - Western Pacific Region , 01. October, 2008

The objective of this workbook is to serve as a guide to facilitate WSP development for an organised water supply that is managed by a water utility or similar entity. WSPs can be tailored differently for each specific water supply system. This workbook is generic and is not specific to any particular country. It is anticipated that trainers in each country would develop their own WSP training material which would be linked directly to country drinking water standards and implementing guidelines as well as bring written in other appropriate languages.

Version 1
21. June 2017.
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by World Health Organization, 13. June, 2017

Global status report on water safety plans: A review of proactive risk assessment and risk management practices to ensure the safety of drinking-water

by World Health Organization, 13. June, 2017

Based on information gathered from 118 countries representing every region of the globe, this report provides a picture of WSP uptake worldwide. It presents information on WSP implementation and the integration of WSPs into the policy environment. It also explores WSP benefits, challenges and future priorities.

It is envisaged that this report will serve as a useful resource for policy-makers, practitioners and other stakeholders to inform and strengthen the planning and practice of WSP implementation.

Version 1
28. February 2017.
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by Ministry of Water Irrigation and Energy Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 01. July, 2015

CLIMATE RESILIENT WATER SAFETY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION – Guidelines for Community Managed Rural Drinking Water Supplies

by Ministry of Water Irrigation and Energy Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 01. July, 2015

The purpose of these Ethiopian guidelines is to provide step-by-step guidance to the rural community/board managed water supplies on how to develop, implement, monitor, and review the rural community managed water safety plans aimed at protecting human health. Furthermore, it serves as a practical tool in identifying and addressing priority risks to the water quality and quantity, reliability and sustainability of the rural water supply system including risks related to current and future impacts of climate changes by taking into consideration available resources and capacities of the water supply system.

Version 1
1. April 2012.
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by Unathi Jack and Philip de Souza , 01. April, 2012

Guidelines for using Web-Enabled Water Safety Plan Tool

by Unathi Jack and Philip de Souza , 01. April, 2012

The Water Research Commission (WRC) project K5/1993//3 “Web enablement of a water safety plan and incorporation of existing similar supply system assessment tool” aimed to establish a methodology to identify and manage the risks of water services infrastructure and the means by which Water Services Institutions (WSIs) are better able to identify and manage these through use of Water Safety Planning. The tool assists in developing a Water Safety Plan. Implementation thereof (e.g. taking required actions, implementing corrective actions, developing and implementing management and communication procedures) of the Water Safety Plan depends on the Water Services Institution (WSI).

Version 2
11. July 2017.
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by Karen Setty et al., 19. February, 2017

Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain

by Karen Setty et al., 19. February, 2017

Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes.
(Final report at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.004)

Version 1
8. November 2016.
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by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al.,

Protecting surface water for health: Editable checklists and tables to support catchment inspection

by World Health Organization (Editors: Rickert B et al.,

Protecting surface water for health provides a structured approach to understanding surface waters and their catchments to support the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risks, and the development of management strategies for their control, as a basis for providing safe drinking-water.

Editable versions of the catchment and pollution assessment checklists and inventory tables that are presented in the book to support surface-water catchment inspection are presented here. Please refer to the introductory pages of Section 3.2 of Protecting surface water for health for guidance on how to use these checklists and tables to perform a catchment assessment (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/pswh/en/).

Version 4
24. August 2016.
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by WHO, 2011

Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed.) – CHINESE

by WHO, 2011

The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans.

Version 2
29. July 2016.
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by WHO, 29. July, 2013

WSP implementation and lessons learned: Amarapuri Water Supply

by WHO, 29. July, 2013

This case study describes the benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from WSP implementation in the Amarapuri Water Supply System, Nepal.

Version 4
21. April 2016.
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by WHO, 2011

Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed. incorporating the first addendum) – ENGLISH

by WHO, 2011

The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans. The Guidelines position WSPs as a core element of the Framework for Safe Drinking-water and outline the principles and key elements of a WSP for policy-makers.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Angella Rinehold, 25. August, 2016

Rural WSP template for Cambodia

by Angella Rinehold, 25. August, 2016

This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Cambodia which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.

Version 1
1. February 2011.
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by Frank Greaves and Claire Simmons , 01. February, 2011

Water Safety Plans for communities: guidance for adoption of water safety plans at community level

by Frank Greaves and Claire Simmons , 01. February, 2011

Numerous publications now exist on the formation and use of WSPs, but most of these focus on largerscale projects run by private or public utilities, commercial enterprises and international NGOs. Tearfund’s particular interest is in how WSPs can be understood and established by user communities which are faced with self-managing a water supply project to gain sustainable access to safe water quality. The guide is written chiefly for the use of a facilitator or facilitating body (eg the hygiene promoters or community mobilisers of a DMT or partner staff) to use in training community members, and in particular,the water project accountability group (eg Water Users Committee) of the community.

Version 1
5. March 2014.
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by EPA , 05. March, 2014

Climate Ready Water Utilities

by EPA , 05. March, 2014

Climate change is important to consider in all aspects of utility operations and planning because it can impact both the water resources as well as the infrastructure necessary to provide clean and safe water. The Climate Ready Water Utilities initiative is a practical and easy to use tool developed by EPA to assists the drinking water, waste water and stormwater utilities in understanding and addressing climate change risks and impacts as well as preparing operators systems’ for the impacts of climate change.

Version 1
4. July 2011.
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by WHO , 04. July, 2011

Bangladesh: Water safety plan

by WHO , 04. July, 2011

Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in 10 urban systems in Bangladesh. This case study reports on WSP facts, and provides a description of the status of urban and rural water supply in Bangladesh.

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Royal Government of Bhutan et al., 01. December, 2013

Rural Water Safety Plan (RWSP) Facilitator’s Guide

by Royal Government of Bhutan et al., 01. December, 2013

The facilitator‟s guide for the Rural Water Safety Plan Workshop has been prepared based on the Water Safety Planning for Small Community Water Supplies adapted to the Bhutanese context. This manual will describe how rural communities can deliver and sustain safe drinking water by developing and implementing WSPs for their own communities.

Version 1
21. April 2016.
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by WHO, 11. April, 2013

WSP quality assurance tool

by WHO, 11. April, 2013

Tool developed to support the development and implementation of WSPs, systematically highlighting the areas where progress is being made and opportunities for improvement.

Version 2
1. November 2009.
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by USEPA et al., 01. November, 2009

Water Quality application of composite correction in India

by USEPA et al., 01. November, 2009

This case study describes the study of the Composite Correction Programme (CCP) in three different cities in India to prepare for the implementation of Water Safety Plans. CCP is a water treatment plant optimization program that improves water treatment operation with limited capital investment by optimizing particle removal from water treatment plants.

Version 1
31. July 2017.
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by WECF International, 30. June, 2017

WSSP compendium – Developing a water & sanitation safety plan in a rural community

by WECF International, 30. June, 2017

A Water and Sanitation Safety Plan (WSSP) is an efficient methodology to manage drinking water and sanitation safely and is based on the Water Safety Plan and Sanitation Safety Plan approach by WHO. This WSSP Compendium aims to enable communities to develop a WSSP for small-scale water supplies, e.g. dug wells, boreholes, springs and piped centralised water supply systems, and as well as to assess the quality of sanitation facilities such as school toilets.

Version 1
24. August 2016.
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by WHO, 2012

Обеспечение безопасности питьевой воды в небольших коммунальных системах водоснабжения Поэтапное руководство по снижению рисков, связанных с системами водоснабжения в небольших населенных пунктах

by WHO, 2012

В «Руководстве ВОЗ по обеспечению качества питьевой воды» рекомендуется проведение комплексной оценки и мероприятий по снижению рисков для надежного обеспечения безопасности систем водоснабжения путем внедрения планов по обеспечению безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Это систематический, комплексный, экономически эффективный и применимый в самых различных обстоятельствах подход, который, таким образом, имеет важное значение для небольших коммунальных систем водоснабжения.

Цель данного руководства – помочь и оказать поддержку небольшим общинам в разработке и внедрении ПОБВ. Изложены шесть последовательных этапов, позволяющих разработать и внедрить ПОБВ. Следуя подходу, описанному в данном руководстве, небольшие общины могут усовершенствовать деятельность своих систем водоснабжения, чтобы добиться постепенных, устойчивых улучшений качества питьевой воды.

Version 1
19. February 2019.
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by Giuliana Ferrero et al., 31. January, 2019

Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review.

by Giuliana Ferrero et al., 31. January, 2019

The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implementation needs. Many countries and regions lack case examples, legal requirements, and training resources for WSPs, corresponding to widespread capacity shortfall in the water supply sector. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on capacity building and training for WSPs, with the goal of providing recommendations for multiple stakeholder groups at the scales of individual utilities, national governments, and intermediate units of governance. We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.

Version 1
13. May 2016.
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by GRAHAM GAGNON et al., 2015

DRINKING WATER SAFETY PLANS

by GRAHAM GAGNON et al., 2015

The objective of this research was to understand the impact of WSPs on operators and water management culture in Alberta’s small communities.

Version 2
21. April 2016.
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by IWA, 2007

Development and implementation of water safety plans for small scale supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned

by IWA, 2007

This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use.

Version 1
1. November 2011.
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by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Philippines: Water safety plan

by World Health Organization et al., 01. November, 2011

Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in the Philippines. This case study reports on key WSP facts, and describes the status of water supply in the Philippines

Version 1
19. May 2016.
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by Mark Rodgers - USEPA, 19. May, 2016

ppt – The Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans

by Mark Rodgers - USEPA, 19. May, 2016

Powerpoint presentation from the USEPA on the Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans. The critical elements to laboratory support as well as he linkages between Water Safety Plan implementation and laboratory support are explained.

Version 0
29. May 2017.
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by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 2016

WSP Status in Egypt

by Mahmoud Abd Al Rahman Saad Mehany et al., 2016

Egypt has accomplished the first draft of WSP at 2013, via cooperation between the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and the VNG - International, this abstract represent the current situation of WSP in Egypt.

Version 1
1. July 2019.
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by Water Supplies Department et al., 01. July, 2019

WSP template for hospitals in Hong Kong

by Water Supplies Department et al., 01. July, 2019

This template is prepared based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) with an aim to assisting the management staff of a hospital to develop and implement Water Safety Plan (WSP) to enhance water safety. It covers the essential elements of WSPs and common requirements applicable to the plumbing layout of hospitals. In additional to the English version, this resource is also available in traditional Chinese and simplified Chinese.