Guidelines for Drinking Water Safety Planning for West Bengal
This publication provides practical guidance and best practices on the stages of developing safe rural drinking water delivery service schemes in West Bengal and other areas in India.
Water safety planning is considered an international best practice for assessing and managing public health risks from drinking water supply systems. The Asian Development Bank, in close collaboration with the World health Organization, assisted in developing water safety planning guidelines for West Bengal under a project aiming to improve rural drinking water delivery service schemes in the state. The publication outlines phases of the water safety plan, which can also be applied to developing bulk water supply systems.
Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain
Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes.
(Final report at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.004)
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed. incorporating the first addendum) – ENGLISH
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans. The Guidelines position WSPs as a core element of the Framework for Safe Drinking-water and outline the principles and key elements of a WSP for policy-makers.
Rural WSP template for Cambodia
This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Cambodia which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed.) – CHINESE
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans.
Climate Ready Water Utilities
Climate change is important to consider in all aspects of utility operations and planning because it can impact both the water resources as well as the infrastructure necessary to provide clean and safe water. The Climate Ready Water Utilities initiative is a practical and easy to use tool developed by EPA to assists the drinking water, waste water and stormwater utilities in understanding and addressing climate change risks and impacts as well as preparing operators systems’ for the impacts of climate change.
Water safety plan quality assurance tool
This tool is designed to guide organized drinking-water supplies through a WSP self-assessment to determine the WSP’s completeness and the effectiveness of its implementation. It aims to support the development, implementation and assessment of WSPs by systematically highlighting the areas where progress is being made and opportunities for improvement.
Water Safety Plans for communities: guidance for adoption of water safety plans at community level
Numerous publications now exist on the formation and use of WSPs, but most of these focus on largerscale projects run by private or public utilities, commercial enterprises and international NGOs. Tearfund’s particular interest is in how WSPs can be understood and established by user communities which are faced with self-managing a water supply project to gain sustainable access to safe water quality. The guide is written chiefly for the use of a facilitator or facilitating body (eg the hygiene promoters or community mobilisers of a DMT or partner staff) to use in training community members, and in particular,the water project accountability group (eg Water Users Committee) of the community.
Risk assessment of small water supplies
Set in Iceland, this short video documents how sanitary inspections can be applied as a basic risk management tool for small water supplies. For more information, visit: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/department-civil-environmental-engineering/research/water-environment-and-health-engineering-group
Linee guida per la valutazione e gestione del rischio nella filiera delle acque destinate al consumo umano secondo il modello dei Water Safety Plans .
One decade ago, the World Health Organization recommended that water suppliers developed and implemented Water Safety Plans (WSP) as the most
effective mean to assure the quality of the water supply and the protection of the health of consumers. This model, as transposed in this guideline, consists of the overall risk assessment and risk management from catchment to tap, to protect the water to be destined to human consumption and the system, as well
as to control any process potentially affecting water quality, with the aim of assuring on a continuous way the absence of physical, biological and chemical hazards in drinking water. Risk based approach will also facilitate the flexibility of hazards management of emerging contaminants which are not systematically monitored, and /or vulnerabilities of water supply systems to direct and indirect impacts due to climate change. The guidance is addressed to water suppliers and health authorities as well as to all the stakeholders interested in different way to the drinking water quality. Criteria, methods and procedures are here provided in clear and practical terms to develop and implement WSP in drinking water supplies in Italy, independently by their dimension and by the volumes of supplied water.
Comparative evaluation of risk management frameworks for U.S. source waters
The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk management frameworks and tools might benefit U.S. utilities by combining a literature review with external utility interviews. Qualitative data provided a basis for categorical assignments of goodness of fit
with each of 24 framework evaluation criteria across five categories. Weighted integration using stakeholder input provided a relative ranking of applicability, later validated at a decision-making workshop. Hybridization of the American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association (ANSI/AWWA G300) source water protection standard and World Health Organization Water Safety Plan guidance was recommended to develop a comprehensive risk management approach for U.S. source waters. Cost–benefit components of other guidance materials were recommended to incorporate financial considerations into risk ranking and mitigation decisions.
Development and implementation of water safety plans for small scale supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned
This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use.
Drinking Water Safety Planning: A practical guide for the Pacific Island countries
This document is a guideline for development and implementation of Water Safety Plans approach in the Pacific. It is primarily for water supply managers, engineers and operators and introduces a more proactive way of managing drinking water supplies through a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach. Implementing DWSPs helps achieve a more effective drinking water supply system.
Vietnam: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Vietnam. This case study highlights key WSP facts, and describes the water supply situation and regulation of WSP in Vietnam
ppt – The Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans
Powerpoint presentation from the USEPA on the Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans. The critical elements to laboratory support as well as he linkages between Water Safety Plan implementation and laboratory support are explained.
DRINKING WATER SAFETY PLANS
The objective of this research was to understand the impact of WSPs on operators and water management culture in Alberta’s small communities.
Maynilad Water: Water Safety Plans
Describes the formulation of a Water Safety Plan by Maynilad Water Services, Inc. Philippines.
WSP template for rural water supplies in Liberia
This WSP template as been developed and customized specifically for use in rural water supplies in Liberia. Text in yellow provides an example of how to complete each section. This template may be considered for use in other countries and regions, but must first be reviewed and adapted to suit the local context.
Bhutan: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Bhutan. This case study reports on key facts of the WSPs, and describes the status of water supply in Bhutan.
Обеспечение безопасности питьевой воды в небольших коммунальных системах водоснабжения Поэтапное руководство по снижению рисков, связанных с системами водоснабжения в небольших населенных пунктах
В «Руководстве ВОЗ по обеспечению качества питьевой воды» рекомендуется проведение комплексной оценки и мероприятий по снижению рисков для надежного обеспечения безопасности систем водоснабжения путем внедрения планов по обеспечению безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Это систематический, комплексный, экономически эффективный и применимый в самых различных обстоятельствах подход, который, таким образом, имеет важное значение для небольших коммунальных систем водоснабжения.
Цель данного руководства – помочь и оказать поддержку небольшим общинам в разработке и внедрении ПОБВ. Изложены шесть последовательных этапов, позволяющих разработать и внедрить ПОБВ. Следуя подходу, описанному в данном руководстве, небольшие общины могут усовершенствовать деятельность своих систем водоснабжения, чтобы добиться постепенных, устойчивых улучшений качества питьевой воды.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Yarra Valley Water, Australia
This case study provides an example of a water supplier in Australia which has undertaken research to understand consumer expectations in relation to water quality. This includes the use of surveys and focus groups. It also describes the approach the company takes to handling, recording, and reviewing complaints.
Urban water safety plan template for Bhutan
Provides a template WSP for urban water supply system in Bhutan based on the WSP manual. Contains text and tables as examples, which should be reviewed and revised to reflect system-specific conditions.
Implementation and evaluation of the water safety plan approach for buildings
The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes water safety plans (WSPs) – a risk-based management approach – for premise plumbing systems in buildings to prevent deterioration of drinking-water quality. Experience with the implementation of WSPs in buildings were gathered within a pilot project in Germany. The project included an evaluation of the feasibility and advantages of WSPs by all stakeholders who share responsibility in drinking-water safety. While the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated for all buildings, benefits reported by building operators varied. The more technical standards were complied with before implementing WSP, the less pronounced were the resulting improvements. In most cases, WSPs yielded an increased system knowledge and awareness for drinking-water quality issues. WSPs also led to improved operation of the premise plumbing system and provided benefits for surveillance authorities. A survey among the European Network of Drinking-Water Regulators on the existing legal framework regarding drinking-water safety in buildings exhibited that countries are aware of the need to manage risks in buildings' installations, but experience with WSP is rare. Based on the successful implementation and the positive effects of WSPs on drinking-water quality, we recommend the establishment of legal frameworks that require WSPs for priority buildings whilst accounting for differing conditions in buildings and countries.
WSP Status in Egypt
Egypt has accomplished the first draft of WSP at 2013, via cooperation between the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and the VNG - International, this abstract represent the current situation of WSP in Egypt.
Comprehensive Framework for integrated risk management in WSP
Risk assessment and risk prioritisation are critical elements of a Water Safety Plan. However the process can be complex, require considerable resources and take a long time. Therefore before establishing a risk management system it is important to be clear on the most cost effective approach to meet local priorities and needs. This document provides an overview of the TECHNEAU Generic Framework, which is a comprehensive structure for integrated risk management from catchment to consumer in Water Safety Plans, considering both water quality and water quantity
Water Safety Plans – Helping people in South Asia access safer, cleaner water
Information and advocacy brochure from WHO-SEARO briefly defining Water Safety Plans (WSPs), showing progress in WSP development in South East Asia Region, illustrating what WSPs deliver to suppliers and users and providing ideas on what stakeholders' next steps might be.
Johannesburg, South Africa Case Study
This document describes the learnings from water safety plan development and implementation by Rand Water in South Africa, providing valuable field experiences from the process.
Plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau
En 2004, les Directives de l'OMS pour la qualité de l'eau de boisson recommandaient que les fournisseurs d'eau potable développent et mettent en œuvre des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau (PGSSE) afin d'évaluer et de gérer systématiquement les risques.
Ce manuel répond à cette recommandation en décrivant de façon claire et en termes pratiques, comment développer et mettre en œuvre des plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau. Onze modules de formation fournissent des conseils par étape. Chaque module présente une étape clé dans le processus de développement et de mise en application des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau.
Operational policy: Preparation and implementation of water safety plans
This purpose of this Operational Policy is to provide an overview of the minimum requirements for the preparation and implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs) across a water supply system.
This Operational Policy is not intended to replace any applicable regulatory requirements with respect to WSPs, but, rather, to provide some guidance on important aspects of the WSP implementation
This Operational Policy is divided into three distinct sections: Catchment, Treatment and Distribution, and provides information on the minimum requirements for each part of the catchment-to-consumer WSP framework.
Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (2nd Ed. Volume 3 – Surveillance and control of community supplies
This publication describes the methods used in the surveillance of drinking-water quality in the light of the special problems of small-community supplies, particularly in developing countries, and outlines the strategies necessary to ensure that surveillance is effective. It is also concerned with the linkage between surveillance and remedial action and with the form that remedial action should take.
The Economics of Drinking Water Safety Planning: An Advocacy Tool
This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.
Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans Guideline: Rural Water Supply System
Based on international best practice and Nepal's Department of Water Supply & Sanitation experiences, these guidelines have been developed to support rural water supply schemes to development and implement an effective climate resilient WSP in rural settings.
Water safety planning training videos
Training videos on water safety planning are now available. The videos cover an introduction to water safety plan principles and steps, and water safety plan auditing. These videos are recordings from a bilateral training event organized by the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regional Offices, with support from WHO Headquarters. The content has been designed such that the global WSP community can benefit from viewing. For more information and to view the videos, visit the Water safety planning training videos page.
ppt – Quality Systems: ISO/IEC 17025:2005
Powerpoint presentation for the US EPA with an introduction to the ISO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard for calibration and testing labs - including its purpose and how to ensure the quality system are effective
Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia
In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.
SNAKES & LADDERS – Water Safety Plan version in Nepal
‘WSP Snakes & Ladders’ was developed according to the hazards identified and hazard control measures developed for this particular community in Nepal. The game could easily be adapted to any drinking water system or community, ensuring that the hazards and control measures are locally appropriate.
Water safety plans: managing drinking-water quality for public health
A brief note on the rationale for the WSP approach, the potential benefits for various stakeholder groups, and the value of incorporating WSPs into policies and regulations.
Emergency management plan checklist
Preparation of a well documented and up to date emergency management plan is an essential component of an effective incident response framework. The structure and content can only be determined by each water supply taking account of a wide range of different local factors. However this document provides a checklist of those items which need to be considered.
Treated water storage
This document summarises the type of risks that might occur within treated water storages and how to control them.
Planifier la gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau pour l’approvisionnement en eau des petites communautés: Recommandations pour la gestion par étapes des risques liés à l’approvisionnement en eau potable des petites communautés
Les Directives de qualité pour l’eau de boisson de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommandent l'application d'une approche d'ensemble pour l'évaluation et la gestion des risques appelée «Plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau» afin d'assurer de la façon la plus efficace la sécurité des approvisionnements en eau. Cette approche est systématique, complète, rentable et adaptée à un large éventail de circonstances. Ainsi est-elle un outil important pour l'approvisionnement en eau des petites communautés.
Ce manuel a pour objet d’assurer la participation des communautés, de les rendre autonomes et de les guider dans l’élaboration et la mise en oeuvre de plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau pour leurs réseaux d’eau de boisson.
Il présente des recommandations sur la façon de développer et de mettre en œuvre un PGSSE au moyen de 6 tâches réalisables. En suivant l'approche telle qu'elle est décrite dans ce manuel, les petites communautés peuvent améliorer la gestion de leur système d'approvisionnement et obtenir progressivement des améliorations durables de la qualité de l'eau potable.