The development of a generic Water Safety Plan for small community water supply
This case study describes the development of Water Safety Plans in small community water supplies in South Africa. It describes the previous assessment methods as well as the eleven steps taken to develop and implement the WSP.
Water Safety Planning (WSP), an approach which aims at ensuring safe drinking-water thorough a comprehensive risk system assessment and management process since its adoption by the International Water Association (IWA) and World Health Organization (WHO) seeks to support achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 6.1 to provide safe drinking-water for all.
Since its adoption, national governments have included them in national legislation to promote their implementation because of its immense benefits.
In scaling up effective up of WSP implementation across these different countries, this worldwide accepted approach needs to be supported by tools, resources, regulations and policies, guidelines to create the enabling environment and support stakeholder participation at the national level.
IWA with support from OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), under the Climate Resilient Water Safety Planning Project has produced this document with a summary of existing national policy and guidelines to support WSP implementation.
Global status report on water safety plans: A review of proactive risk assessment and risk management practices to ensure the safety of drinking-water
Based on information gathered from 118 countries representing every region of the globe, this report provides a picture of WSP uptake worldwide. It presents information on WSP implementation and the integration of WSPs into the policy environment. It also explores WSP benefits, challenges and future priorities.
It is envisaged that this report will serve as a useful resource for policy-makers, practitioners and other stakeholders to inform and strengthen the planning and practice of WSP implementation.
South Africa The development of a generic water safety plan for small community water supply
This document describes development of a Water Safety Plan with a background focus on Africa.
Rural Water Safety Plan (RWSP) Facilitator’s Guide
The facilitator‟s guide for the Rural Water Safety Plan Workshop has been prepared based on the Water Safety Planning for Small Community Water Supplies adapted to the Bhutanese context. This manual will describe how rural communities can deliver and sustain safe drinking water by developing and implementing WSPs for their own communities.
Das Water-Safety-Plan-Konzept: Ein Handbuch für kleine Wasserversorgungen (The WSP concept: a manual for small water supplies)
The German Environment Agency and the Water Technology Centre published a manual for implementation of the WSP approach in small-scale water supplies in Germany in 2014, which complements the technical rule on WSPs of the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW) with practical explanations, recommendations, examples and supporting tools.
DRINKING WATER SAFETY PLANS
The objective of this research was to understand the impact of WSPs on operators and water management culture in Alberta’s small communities.
WSP implementation and lessons learned: Amarapuri Water Supply
This case study describes the benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from WSP implementation in the Amarapuri Water Supply System, Nepal.
Water Safety Plan Handbook: for rural water supply systems
Provides customized guidance on implementing WSPs in rural water supply systems tailored to the Malaysian context
Drinking Water Safety Planning: A practical guide for the Pacific Island countries
This document is a guideline for development and implementation of Water Safety Plans approach in the Pacific. It is primarily for water supply managers, engineers and operators and introduces a more proactive way of managing drinking water supplies through a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach. Implementing DWSPs helps achieve a more effective drinking water supply system.
CLIMATE RESILIENT WATER SAFETY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION – Guidelines for Community Managed Rural Drinking Water Supplies
The purpose of these Ethiopian guidelines is to provide step-by-step guidance to the rural community/board managed water supplies on how to develop, implement, monitor, and review the rural community managed water safety plans aimed at protecting human health. Furthermore, it serves as a practical tool in identifying and addressing priority risks to the water quality and quantity, reliability and sustainability of the rural water supply system including risks related to current and future impacts of climate changes by taking into consideration available resources and capacities of the water supply system.
Comparative evaluation of risk management frameworks for U.S. source waters
The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk management frameworks and tools might benefit U.S. utilities by combining a literature review with external utility interviews. Qualitative data provided a basis for categorical assignments of goodness of fit
with each of 24 framework evaluation criteria across five categories. Weighted integration using stakeholder input provided a relative ranking of applicability, later validated at a decision-making workshop. Hybridization of the American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association (ANSI/AWWA G300) source water protection standard and World Health Organization Water Safety Plan guidance was recommended to develop a comprehensive risk management approach for U.S. source waters. Cost–benefit components of other guidance materials were recommended to incorporate financial considerations into risk ranking and mitigation decisions.
Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review.
The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implementation needs. Many countries and regions lack case examples, legal requirements, and training resources for WSPs, corresponding to widespread capacity shortfall in the water supply sector. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on capacity building and training for WSPs, with the goal of providing recommendations for multiple stakeholder groups at the scales of individual utilities, national governments, and intermediate units of governance. We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.
Risk assessment of small water supplies
Set in Iceland, this short video documents how sanitary inspections can be applied as a basic risk management tool for small water supplies. For more information, visit: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/department-civil-environmental-engineering/research/water-environment-and-health-engineering-group
Maynilad Water: Water Safety Plans
Describes the formulation of a Water Safety Plan by Maynilad Water Services, Inc. Philippines.
Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain
Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes.
(Final report at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.004)
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed.) – CHINESE
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans.
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed. incorporating the first addendum) – ENGLISH
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans. The Guidelines position WSPs as a core element of the Framework for Safe Drinking-water and outline the principles and key elements of a WSP for policy-makers.
Rural WSP template for Cambodia
This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Cambodia which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.
Water Safety Plans for communities: guidance for adoption of water safety plans at community level
Numerous publications now exist on the formation and use of WSPs, but most of these focus on largerscale projects run by private or public utilities, commercial enterprises and international NGOs. Tearfund’s particular interest is in how WSPs can be understood and established by user communities which are faced with self-managing a water supply project to gain sustainable access to safe water quality. The guide is written chiefly for the use of a facilitator or facilitating body (eg the hygiene promoters or community mobilisers of a DMT or partner staff) to use in training community members, and in particular,the water project accountability group (eg Water Users Committee) of the community.
ppt – The Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans
Powerpoint presentation from the USEPA on the Importance of Laboratory Support in the Implementation of Water Safety Plans. The critical elements to laboratory support as well as he linkages between Water Safety Plan implementation and laboratory support are explained.
Climate Ready Water Utilities
Climate change is important to consider in all aspects of utility operations and planning because it can impact both the water resources as well as the infrastructure necessary to provide clean and safe water. The Climate Ready Water Utilities initiative is a practical and easy to use tool developed by EPA to assists the drinking water, waste water and stormwater utilities in understanding and addressing climate change risks and impacts as well as preparing operators systems’ for the impacts of climate change.
Linee guida per la valutazione e gestione del rischio nella filiera delle acque destinate al consumo umano secondo il modello dei Water Safety Plans .
One decade ago, the World Health Organization recommended that water suppliers developed and implemented Water Safety Plans (WSP) as the most
effective mean to assure the quality of the water supply and the protection of the health of consumers. This model, as transposed in this guideline, consists of the overall risk assessment and risk management from catchment to tap, to protect the water to be destined to human consumption and the system, as well
as to control any process potentially affecting water quality, with the aim of assuring on a continuous way the absence of physical, biological and chemical hazards in drinking water. Risk based approach will also facilitate the flexibility of hazards management of emerging contaminants which are not systematically monitored, and /or vulnerabilities of water supply systems to direct and indirect impacts due to climate change. The guidance is addressed to water suppliers and health authorities as well as to all the stakeholders interested in different way to the drinking water quality. Criteria, methods and procedures are here provided in clear and practical terms to develop and implement WSP in drinking water supplies in Italy, independently by their dimension and by the volumes of supplied water.
Development and implementation of water safety plans for small scale supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned
This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use.
Vietnam: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Vietnam. This case study highlights key WSP facts, and describes the water supply situation and regulation of WSP in Vietnam
Implementation and evaluation of the water safety plan approach for buildings
The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes water safety plans (WSPs) – a risk-based management approach – for premise plumbing systems in buildings to prevent deterioration of drinking-water quality. Experience with the implementation of WSPs in buildings were gathered within a pilot project in Germany. The project included an evaluation of the feasibility and advantages of WSPs by all stakeholders who share responsibility in drinking-water safety. While the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated for all buildings, benefits reported by building operators varied. The more technical standards were complied with before implementing WSP, the less pronounced were the resulting improvements. In most cases, WSPs yielded an increased system knowledge and awareness for drinking-water quality issues. WSPs also led to improved operation of the premise plumbing system and provided benefits for surveillance authorities. A survey among the European Network of Drinking-Water Regulators on the existing legal framework regarding drinking-water safety in buildings exhibited that countries are aware of the need to manage risks in buildings' installations, but experience with WSP is rare. Based on the successful implementation and the positive effects of WSPs on drinking-water quality, we recommend the establishment of legal frameworks that require WSPs for priority buildings whilst accounting for differing conditions in buildings and countries.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Yarra Valley Water, Australia
This case study provides an example of a water supplier in Australia which has undertaken research to understand consumer expectations in relation to water quality. This includes the use of surveys and focus groups. It also describes the approach the company takes to handling, recording, and reviewing complaints.
Bhutan: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in Bhutan. This case study reports on key facts of the WSPs, and describes the status of water supply in Bhutan.
Urban water safety plan template for Bhutan
Provides a template WSP for urban water supply system in Bhutan based on the WSP manual. Contains text and tables as examples, which should be reviewed and revised to reflect system-specific conditions.
Обеспечение безопасности питьевой воды в небольших коммунальных системах водоснабжения Поэтапное руководство по снижению рисков, связанных с системами водоснабжения в небольших населенных пунктах
В «Руководстве ВОЗ по обеспечению качества питьевой воды» рекомендуется проведение комплексной оценки и мероприятий по снижению рисков для надежного обеспечения безопасности систем водоснабжения путем внедрения планов по обеспечению безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Это систематический, комплексный, экономически эффективный и применимый в самых различных обстоятельствах подход, который, таким образом, имеет важное значение для небольших коммунальных систем водоснабжения.
Цель данного руководства – помочь и оказать поддержку небольшим общинам в разработке и внедрении ПОБВ. Изложены шесть последовательных этапов, позволяющих разработать и внедрить ПОБВ. Следуя подходу, описанному в данном руководстве, небольшие общины могут усовершенствовать деятельность своих систем водоснабжения, чтобы добиться постепенных, устойчивых улучшений качества питьевой воды.
WSP template for rural water supplies in Liberia
This WSP template as been developed and customized specifically for use in rural water supplies in Liberia. Text in yellow provides an example of how to complete each section. This template may be considered for use in other countries and regions, but must first be reviewed and adapted to suit the local context.
Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (2nd Ed. Volume 3 – Surveillance and control of community supplies
This publication describes the methods used in the surveillance of drinking-water quality in the light of the special problems of small-community supplies, particularly in developing countries, and outlines the strategies necessary to ensure that surveillance is effective. It is also concerned with the linkage between surveillance and remedial action and with the form that remedial action should take.
WSP Status in Egypt
Egypt has accomplished the first draft of WSP at 2013, via cooperation between the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and the VNG - International, this abstract represent the current situation of WSP in Egypt.
Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans Guideline: Rural Water Supply System
Based on international best practice and Nepal's Department of Water Supply & Sanitation experiences, these guidelines have been developed to support rural water supply schemes to development and implement an effective climate resilient WSP in rural settings.
Comprehensive Framework for integrated risk management in WSP
Risk assessment and risk prioritisation are critical elements of a Water Safety Plan. However the process can be complex, require considerable resources and take a long time. Therefore before establishing a risk management system it is important to be clear on the most cost effective approach to meet local priorities and needs. This document provides an overview of the TECHNEAU Generic Framework, which is a comprehensive structure for integrated risk management from catchment to consumer in Water Safety Plans, considering both water quality and water quantity
Water Safety Plans – Helping people in South Asia access safer, cleaner water
Information and advocacy brochure from WHO-SEARO briefly defining Water Safety Plans (WSPs), showing progress in WSP development in South East Asia Region, illustrating what WSPs deliver to suppliers and users and providing ideas on what stakeholders' next steps might be.
Johannesburg, South Africa Case Study
This document describes the learnings from water safety plan development and implementation by Rand Water in South Africa, providing valuable field experiences from the process.
ppt – Quality Systems: ISO/IEC 17025:2005
Powerpoint presentation for the US EPA with an introduction to the ISO ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard for calibration and testing labs - including its purpose and how to ensure the quality system are effective
Plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau
En 2004, les Directives de l'OMS pour la qualité de l'eau de boisson recommandaient que les fournisseurs d'eau potable développent et mettent en œuvre des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau (PGSSE) afin d'évaluer et de gérer systématiquement les risques.
Ce manuel répond à cette recommandation en décrivant de façon claire et en termes pratiques, comment développer et mettre en œuvre des plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau. Onze modules de formation fournissent des conseils par étape. Chaque module présente une étape clé dans le processus de développement et de mise en application des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l'eau.
The Economics of Drinking Water Safety Planning: An Advocacy Tool
This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.