Legionella spp. Risk Assessment in Recreational and Garden Areas of Hotels
Several Travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases occur annually in Europe. Except from the most obvious sites (cooling towers and hot water systems), infections can also be associated with recreational, water feature, and garden areas of hotels. This argument is of great interest to better comprehend the colonization and to calculate the risk to human health of these sites. From July 2000–November 2017, the public health authorities of the Island of Crete (Greece) inspected 119 hotels associated with TALD, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network. Five hundred and eighteen samples were collected from decorative fountain ponds, showers near pools and spas, swimming pools, spa pools, garden sprinklers, drip irrigation systems (reclaimed water) and soil. Of those, 67 (12.93%), originating from 43 (35.83%) hotels, tested positive for Legionella (Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15 and non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. erythra, L. taurinensis, L. birminghamensis, L. rubrilucens). A Relative Risk (R.R.) > 1 (p < 0.0001) was calculated for chlorine concentrations of less than 0.2 mg/L (R.R.: 54.78), star classification (<4) (R.R.: 4.75) and absence of Water Safety Plan implementation (R.R.: 3.96). High risk (≥104 CFU/L) was estimated for pool showers (16.42%), garden sprinklers (7.46%) and pool water (5.97%).
Capacity Training on Urban Water Safety Planning – Training Modules
These training materials have been developed by the South-East Asia Regional Office of WHO to be used either to train trainers or to train operators of water supply utilities or sector stakeholders. They are intended for use by governments, NGOs, private sector, academic institutions and individuals. They may be used intensively over three or five days or included in longer educational programs either as part of academic courses or as part of continuing professional development training. They comprise:
- Presenters Guide,
- Participant’s Handbook,
- PowerPoint slides notes for presenter and PowerPoint Handouts for participants,
- Worksheets and other resources for participants
- Table group worksheets for use during the training programme.
A practical guide to auditing Water Safety Plans
This document provides guidance on developing and implementing a WSP auditing scheme, covering such topics as the aim and role of auditing, auditor training and certification, audit criteria, audit timing and frequency and audit reporting. The guidance document includes examples, tips, tools and case studies, and it serves as a practical resource for policy makers, government bodies responsible for drinking-water regulation or surveillance and water suppliers implementing WSPs.
Water safety plans in the European region: Promotional video
Small-scale systems are an important component of water supply in the WHO European Region, and Water Safety Plans (WSPs) are regarded the most effective approach to ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water.
The above is a short promotional video on WSPs in the WHO European Region.
Water safety plan template including climate considerations for rural water supplies: United Rep. of Tanzania
This water safety plan (WSP) template was developed to support the integration of climate risks into the WSP approach in rural areas of the United Rep. of Tanzania. Examples are presented on how to complete the template, and the information should be considered and customized to the local context.
This template is based on WHO EURO (2014) Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities, but adapted to the local context.
This resource was developed as part of the Department for International Development (DFID, UK)-funded project on “Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH” which was implemented from 2013-2018 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Tanzania.
WSP Status in Egypt
Egypt has accomplished the first draft of WSP at 2013, via cooperation between the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and the VNG - International, this abstract represent the current situation of WSP in Egypt.
Checklist for auditing a drinking water treatment plant
This checklist is conceived as an on-site, concise tool to support the Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA) inspectors in performing a comprehensive audit of drinking water treatment plants. It covers both management and technical aspects of service provision in assuring adequate level of performance for health and environmental protection. The list is composed of 8 sections, encompassing:
- identification and service data
- local (outside) circumstances and security issues
- organization, human resources, procedures and training
- workplace safety, environmental and equipment conditions
- operations and maintenance
- power supply and ancillary services
- drinking water network
- laboratory, reporting and monitoring data
Spanish Town, Jamaica Case Study
Presents the WSP for Spanish Town, Jamaica, which may provide an example approach for WSP development for WSP community at an early stage of WSP development
Guidelines for using Web-Enabled Water Safety Plan Tool
The Water Research Commission (WRC) project K5/1993//3 “Web enablement of a water safety plan and incorporation of existing similar supply system assessment tool” aimed to establish a methodology to identify and manage the risks of water services infrastructure and the means by which Water Services Institutions (WSIs) are better able to identify and manage these through use of Water Safety Planning. The tool assists in developing a Water Safety Plan. Implementation thereof (e.g. taking required actions, implementing corrective actions, developing and implementing management and communication procedures) of the Water Safety Plan depends on the Water Services Institution (WSI).
Household water use and health assessment Spanish Town Jamaica
This case study describes a randomized household survey and the collection and testing of drinking water samples from sources (household tap, public standpipe, rainwater, etc.) and household storage containers in Spanish Town Jamaica, with linkages to water safety planning.
A Conceptual Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Water Safety Plans
This paper outlines a conceptual framework for conducting this type of overall evaluation of the impacts of a WSP. Drawing examples from existing WSPs in various regions, the framework also illustrates the types of intermediate outcomes that can be expected during WSP implementation. This conceptual framework, which requires some familiarity with WSPs, is designed to be one of a set of tools to guide the implementation and evaluation of Water Safety Plans, along with the WHO guidelines (WHO, 2006), the Water Safety Plan Manual (Bartram et al, 2009) and other tools and resources developed for national or regional use1
Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities – ENGLISH
This field guide provides a step-by-step introduction to the WSP approach and a range of ready-to-use templates to assist those locally involved in rural water supply to develop and implement their own WSPs.
The field guide particularly addresses the rural community members responsible for the operation and management of their water supplies, as well as the staff of the local health and water supply offices responsible for safeguarding drinking-water quality and nongovernmental organizations that support drinking-water safety in rural communities.
Water Safety Plan Handbook: for rural water supply systems
Provides customized guidance on implementing WSPs in rural water supply systems tailored to the Malaysian context
SNAKES & LADDERS – Water Safety Plan version in Nepal
‘WSP Snakes & Ladders’ was developed according to the hazards identified and hazard control measures developed for this particular community in Nepal. The game could easily be adapted to any drinking water system or community, ensuring that the hazards and control measures are locally appropriate.
Emergency management plan checklist
Preparation of a well documented and up to date emergency management plan is an essential component of an effective incident response framework. The structure and content can only be determined by each water supply taking account of a wide range of different local factors. However this document provides a checklist of those items which need to be considered.
Economics of WSP: an advocacy tool
This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.
Обеспечение безопасности питьевой воды в небольших коммунальных системах водоснабжения Поэтапное руководство по снижению рисков, связанных с системами водоснабжения в небольших населенных пунктах
В «Руководстве ВОЗ по обеспечению качества питьевой воды» рекомендуется проведение комплексной оценки и мероприятий по снижению рисков для надежного обеспечения безопасности систем водоснабжения путем внедрения планов по обеспечению безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Это систематический, комплексный, экономически эффективный и применимый в самых различных обстоятельствах подход, который, таким образом, имеет важное значение для небольших коммунальных систем водоснабжения.
Цель данного руководства – помочь и оказать поддержку небольшим общинам в разработке и внедрении ПОБВ. Изложены шесть последовательных этапов, позволяющих разработать и внедрить ПОБВ. Следуя подходу, описанному в данном руководстве, небольшие общины могут усовершенствовать деятельность своих систем водоснабжения, чтобы добиться постепенных, устойчивых улучшений качества питьевой воды.
Water safety planning for small community water supplies – ENGLISH
This manual is designed to engage, empower and guide communities in the WSP development and implementation process. Guidance is provided on how to develop and implement a WSP through six achievable tasks. By following the WSP approach as described in this manual, small communities can improve the management of their drinking-water systems to achieve incremental and sustainable improvements in their drinking-water quality.
Unauthorised access to the network
It is the experience of many water suppliers that illegal or unauthorised access to the distribution network can occur for a variety of reasons. This poses a number of water quality risks and can also create wider problems related to loss of revenue. This document briefly summarises the water quality risks associated with unauthorised access and how they can be mitigated.
Plans de Sécurité Sanitaire des Eaux de consommation (PSSE) Etudes de cas en Nouvelle-Calédonie
French version. This document describes the WSP implementation process in New Caledonia (French territory in the Pacific Ocean) for 13 municipalities that started in 2008. It describes the risk assessment and management tools used, the benefits achieved, the challenges and solutions to those challenges and the overall lessons learned.
Drinking Water Safety Planning: A practical guide for the Pacific Island countries
This document is a guideline for development and implementation of Water Safety Plans approach in the Pacific. It is primarily for water supply managers, engineers and operators and introduces a more proactive way of managing drinking water supplies through a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach. Implementing DWSPs helps achieve a more effective drinking water supply system.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Yarra Valley Water, Australia
This case study provides an example of a water supplier in Australia which has undertaken research to understand consumer expectations in relation to water quality. This includes the use of surveys and focus groups. It also describes the approach the company takes to handling, recording, and reviewing complaints.
План обеспечения безопасности воды: практическое руководство по повышению безопасности питьевой воды в небольших местных общинах
Снабжение приемлемой и безопасной питьевой водой в достаточном количестве является одной из основных необходимых предпосылок хорошего здоровья, экономического развития и устойчивой жизнедеятельности семей в сельских сообществах. Подход с использованием плана безопасности воды (ПБВ) является наиболее эффективным путем обеспечения питьевой водой в условиях маломасштабных систем водоснабжения.
В данных рекомендациях приводятся поэтапное описание подхода ПБВ и целый ряд готовых к использованию схем в помощь тем, кто занимается вопросами сельского водоснабжения на местном уровне, в разработке и осуществлении своих собственных ПБВ.
Рекомендации прежде всего адресованы членам сельских сообществ, отвечающих за организацию работы и управление системами водоснабжения, а также сотрудникам местных органов здравоохранения и водоснабжения, ответственных за обеспечение качества питьевой воды, и неправительственным организациям, оказывающим поддержку в области обеспечения безопасности питьевой воды в сельской местности.
Water safety plan manual
Water safety plans (WSPs) are the most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply. This WSP manual describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.
Treated water storage
This document summarises the type of risks that might occur within treated water storages and how to control them.
Philippines: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in the Philippines. This case study reports on key WSP facts, and describes the status of water supply in the Philippines
Corrosion and mains sediments
This document summarises the drinking-water quality risks associated with corrosion and sediment accumulation within distribution networks and describes ways that the risks can be mitigated.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Lyonnaise des Eaux, France
This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in France has established a system to collect consumer acceptability data via a group of volunteers. It provides one particular approach to the collection of opinions on the taste and odour of water supplied.
Иметь большие планы, начинать с малого, расширять масштабы Дорожная карта для оказания поддержки в реализации на уровне стран планов обеспечения безопасности воды
Предпринимая постоянные усилия по повышению безопасности питьевой воды и улучшению здоровья населения, многие страны запросили методические рекомендации о том, как внедрить и расширить масштабы реализации планов обеспечения безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Какой-то одной модели или одного способа, который можно было бы применить для того, чтобы приступить к реализации ПОБВ и затем расширить ее масштабы, нет. Однако накопленный опыт позволяет обозначить ряд шагов, или этапов, которые показывают, как это можно сделать.
Предлагаемая “Дорожная карта” для реализации ПОБВ предназначена для органов государственного управления и нормативного регулирования, которые отвечают за пересмотр действующих или разработку новых стратегий, программ и нормативов в области питьевого водоснабжения. Она также может оказаться полезной для негосударственных организаций, финансирующих учреждений и других структур, заинтересованных в улучшении имеющихся у них программ и практики работы.
Development and implementation of water safety plans for small scale supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned
This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use.
Training workbook on Water Safety Planning Urban systems
The objective of this workbook is to serve as a guide to facilitate WSP development for an organised water supply that is managed by a water utility or similar entity. WSPs can be tailored differently for each specific water supply system. This workbook is generic and is not specific to any particular country. It is anticipated that trainers in each country would develop their own WSP training material which would be linked directly to country drinking water standards and implementing guidelines as well as bring written in other appropriate languages.
Pacific Drinking Water Safety Planning Lessons Learned
This case study provides the progress and lessons learned form the implementation of the Pacific Drinking Water Safety Plan programme.
Conducting consumer surveys of water acceptability
Communication with consumers is a key part of assessing and promoting the acceptability of drinking water supplies with consumers. The evaluation of consumer acceptability and knowledge of consumer complaints are important components of assessing the overall effectiveness of a WSP and an essential part of the verification of a WSP. This document summarises the main approaches to the collection and analysis of consumer acceptability through surveys.
Consumer Acceptability Case Study: Dunedin City Council, New Zealand
This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in New Zealand operates a Service Centre to respond quickly to customer complaints and assesses levels of consumer acceptability through analysis of complaint data and questionnaires.
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed.) – CHINESE
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans.
WSP implementation and lessons learned: Amarapuri Water Supply
This case study describes the benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from WSP implementation in the Amarapuri Water Supply System, Nepal.
Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation
This guidebook, released by UNEP Risoe Center, describes adaptation strategies in the categories of water conservation; storm water control and capture; resilience to water quality degradation; preparation for extreme weather events; diversification of water supply; and mitigation. It has been made widely available and will help both developed and developing countries understand means of increasing resilience to the uncertain effects of future climate change. The Water Institute at UNC provided technical and methodological expertise.
Nepal: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported Water safety plan implementation in Nepal. This case study reports on key WSP facts, and describes the status of water supply.
Comprehensive Framework for integrated risk management in WSP
Risk assessment and risk prioritisation are critical elements of a Water Safety Plan. However the process can be complex, require considerable resources and take a long time. Therefore before establishing a risk management system it is important to be clear on the most cost effective approach to meet local priorities and needs. This document provides an overview of the TECHNEAU Generic Framework, which is a comprehensive structure for integrated risk management from catchment to consumer in Water Safety Plans, considering both water quality and water quantity
WSP training package
The training package consists of three components, a facilitator handbook, a participant workbook and accompanying PowerPoint presentations. It is structured around 13 learning modules based on the WHO/IWA WSP Manual: Step by step risk management for drinking-water supplies and the WHO/IWA WSP Quality Assurance Tool.