Water safety plans in the European region: Promotional video
Small-scale systems are an important component of water supply in the WHO European Region, and Water Safety Plans (WSPs) are regarded the most effective approach to ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water.
The above is a short promotional video on WSPs in the WHO European Region.
Legionella spp. Risk Assessment in Recreational and Garden Areas of Hotels
Several Travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases occur annually in Europe. Except from the most obvious sites (cooling towers and hot water systems), infections can also be associated with recreational, water feature, and garden areas of hotels. This argument is of great interest to better comprehend the colonization and to calculate the risk to human health of these sites. From July 2000–November 2017, the public health authorities of the Island of Crete (Greece) inspected 119 hotels associated with TALD, as reported through the European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network. Five hundred and eighteen samples were collected from decorative fountain ponds, showers near pools and spas, swimming pools, spa pools, garden sprinklers, drip irrigation systems (reclaimed water) and soil. Of those, 67 (12.93%), originating from 43 (35.83%) hotels, tested positive for Legionella (Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15 and non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. erythra, L. taurinensis, L. birminghamensis, L. rubrilucens). A Relative Risk (R.R.) > 1 (p < 0.0001) was calculated for chlorine concentrations of less than 0.2 mg/L (R.R.: 54.78), star classification (<4) (R.R.: 4.75) and absence of Water Safety Plan implementation (R.R.: 3.96). High risk (≥104 CFU/L) was estimated for pool showers (16.42%), garden sprinklers (7.46%) and pool water (5.97%).
Capacity Training on Urban Water Safety Planning – Training Modules
These training materials have been developed by the South-East Asia Regional Office of WHO to be used either to train trainers or to train operators of water supply utilities or sector stakeholders. They are intended for use by governments, NGOs, private sector, academic institutions and individuals. They may be used intensively over three or five days or included in longer educational programs either as part of academic courses or as part of continuing professional development training. They comprise:
- Presenters Guide,
- Participant’s Handbook,
- PowerPoint slides notes for presenter and PowerPoint Handouts for participants,
- Worksheets and other resources for participants
- Table group worksheets for use during the training programme.
A practical guide to auditing Water Safety Plans
This document provides guidance on developing and implementing a WSP auditing scheme, covering such topics as the aim and role of auditing, auditor training and certification, audit criteria, audit timing and frequency and audit reporting. The guidance document includes examples, tips, tools and case studies, and it serves as a practical resource for policy makers, government bodies responsible for drinking-water regulation or surveillance and water suppliers implementing WSPs.
Water safety plan template including climate considerations for rural water supplies: United Rep. of Tanzania
This water safety plan (WSP) template was developed to support the integration of climate risks into the WSP approach in rural areas of the United Rep. of Tanzania. Examples are presented on how to complete the template, and the information should be considered and customized to the local context.
This template is based on WHO EURO (2014) Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities, but adapted to the local context.
This resource was developed as part of the Department for International Development (DFID, UK)-funded project on “Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH” which was implemented from 2013-2018 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Tanzania.
WSP Status in Egypt
Egypt has accomplished the first draft of WSP at 2013, via cooperation between the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and the VNG - International, this abstract represent the current situation of WSP in Egypt.
Checklist for auditing a drinking water treatment plant
This checklist is conceived as an on-site, concise tool to support the Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA) inspectors in performing a comprehensive audit of drinking water treatment plants. It covers both management and technical aspects of service provision in assuring adequate level of performance for health and environmental protection. The list is composed of 8 sections, encompassing:
- identification and service data
- local (outside) circumstances and security issues
- organization, human resources, procedures and training
- workplace safety, environmental and equipment conditions
- operations and maintenance
- power supply and ancillary services
- drinking water network
- laboratory, reporting and monitoring data
Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th Ed. incorporating the first addendum) – ENGLISH
The Guidelines for drinking-water quality is an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health. It provides guidance on ways of implementing its recommendations of contextual hazard identification and risk management, including catchment-to-consumer water safety plans. The Guidelines position WSPs as a core element of the Framework for Safe Drinking-water and outline the principles and key elements of a WSP for policy-makers.
WSP summary of benefits and costs
Before implementation of a WSP it is important to clearly identify the expected benefits and the associated costs both of which could be significant. This will help secure the support of senior management, ensure that sufficient resources are made available and allow much more targeted and efficient implementation. The actual benefits and costs of WSP implementation will vary considerably from utility to utility. This document sets out a summary of the issues that need to be taken into account.
The development of a generic Water Safety Plan for small community water supply
This case study describes the development of Water Safety Plans in small community water supplies in South Africa. It describes the previous assessment methods as well as the eleven steps taken to develop and implement the WSP.
Health aspects of plumbing
This text describes the processes involved in the design, installation and maintenance of effective plumbing systems. It also examines the microbiological, chemical, physical and financial risks associated with plumbing and emphasizes the importance of measures to conserve supplies of safe drinking-water. It is aimed at administrators and plumbers working in areas that are served by a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system, or are about to install a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system.
Household Water Use and Health Survey for the WSP Linden Guyana
This Household Water Use and Health Survey was therefore conducted as part of the Water Safety Plan for Linden, Guyana in order to understand the fate of water from the time it reaches the home to the point of consumption. It illustrates the sampling, the household visits, the water testing, the data management and discusses the results from the survey.
A guide to conducting household surveys for Water Safety Plans
The aim of this manual is to provide guidance on conducting a household survey as part of a Water Safety Plan for organized piped water supply systems in resource-limited settings. A household survey can help researchers to understand the fate of water from the time it reaches the home to the point of consumption. This survey contributes to Module 2 (System Assessment) of the Water Safety Plan, upon which the subsequent steps of hazard identification, consideration of control measures, and development of corrective actions, monitoring, and verification plans are based. Thus, the survey provides valuable information for the WSP team as the team goes through the process of system evaluation and implementation of changes resulting from the Water Safety Plan. Specific examples intended to guide the planner in designing the survey are provided in the appendices. A summary checklist for survey planning and completion is provided as Appendix A.
Think big, start small, scale-up: a road map to support country level implementation of water safety plans – ENGLISH
This document provides a 'road map' to support country-level implementation of WSPs. It provides guidance for country planners on how to initiate and carry out WSP implementation. The document outlines a series of steps which may guide how WSP implementation and scale-up of WSPs may be approached at a national level.
Water Safety Plans for communities: guidance for adoption of water safety plans at community level
Numerous publications now exist on the formation and use of WSPs, but most of these focus on largerscale projects run by private or public utilities, commercial enterprises and international NGOs. Tearfund’s particular interest is in how WSPs can be understood and established by user communities which are faced with self-managing a water supply project to gain sustainable access to safe water quality. The guide is written chiefly for the use of a facilitator or facilitating body (eg the hygiene promoters or community mobilisers of a DMT or partner staff) to use in training community members, and in particular,the water project accountability group (eg Water Users Committee) of the community.
Spanish Town, Jamaica Case Study
Presents the WSP for Spanish Town, Jamaica, which may provide an example approach for WSP development for WSP community at an early stage of WSP development
Guidelines for using Web-Enabled Water Safety Plan Tool
The Water Research Commission (WRC) project K5/1993//3 “Web enablement of a water safety plan and incorporation of existing similar supply system assessment tool” aimed to establish a methodology to identify and manage the risks of water services infrastructure and the means by which Water Services Institutions (WSIs) are better able to identify and manage these through use of Water Safety Planning. The tool assists in developing a Water Safety Plan. Implementation thereof (e.g. taking required actions, implementing corrective actions, developing and implementing management and communication procedures) of the Water Safety Plan depends on the Water Services Institution (WSI).
Household water use and health assessment Spanish Town Jamaica
This case study describes a randomized household survey and the collection and testing of drinking water samples from sources (household tap, public standpipe, rainwater, etc.) and household storage containers in Spanish Town Jamaica, with linkages to water safety planning.
A Conceptual Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Water Safety Plans
This paper outlines a conceptual framework for conducting this type of overall evaluation of the impacts of a WSP. Drawing examples from existing WSPs in various regions, the framework also illustrates the types of intermediate outcomes that can be expected during WSP implementation. This conceptual framework, which requires some familiarity with WSPs, is designed to be one of a set of tools to guide the implementation and evaluation of Water Safety Plans, along with the WHO guidelines (WHO, 2006), the Water Safety Plan Manual (Bartram et al, 2009) and other tools and resources developed for national or regional use1
Water safety plan: a field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities – ENGLISH
This field guide provides a step-by-step introduction to the WSP approach and a range of ready-to-use templates to assist those locally involved in rural water supply to develop and implement their own WSPs.
The field guide particularly addresses the rural community members responsible for the operation and management of their water supplies, as well as the staff of the local health and water supply offices responsible for safeguarding drinking-water quality and nongovernmental organizations that support drinking-water safety in rural communities.
Water Safety Plan Handbook: for rural water supply systems
Provides customized guidance on implementing WSPs in rural water supply systems tailored to the Malaysian context
SNAKES & LADDERS – Water Safety Plan version in Nepal
‘WSP Snakes & Ladders’ was developed according to the hazards identified and hazard control measures developed for this particular community in Nepal. The game could easily be adapted to any drinking water system or community, ensuring that the hazards and control measures are locally appropriate.
Emergency management plan checklist
Preparation of a well documented and up to date emergency management plan is an essential component of an effective incident response framework. The structure and content can only be determined by each water supply taking account of a wide range of different local factors. However this document provides a checklist of those items which need to be considered.
Economics of WSP: an advocacy tool
This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.
Обеспечение безопасности питьевой воды в небольших коммунальных системах водоснабжения Поэтапное руководство по снижению рисков, связанных с системами водоснабжения в небольших населенных пунктах
В «Руководстве ВОЗ по обеспечению качества питьевой воды» рекомендуется проведение комплексной оценки и мероприятий по снижению рисков для надежного обеспечения безопасности систем водоснабжения путем внедрения планов по обеспечению безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Это систематический, комплексный, экономически эффективный и применимый в самых различных обстоятельствах подход, который, таким образом, имеет важное значение для небольших коммунальных систем водоснабжения.
Цель данного руководства – помочь и оказать поддержку небольшим общинам в разработке и внедрении ПОБВ. Изложены шесть последовательных этапов, позволяющих разработать и внедрить ПОБВ. Следуя подходу, описанному в данном руководстве, небольшие общины могут усовершенствовать деятельность своих систем водоснабжения, чтобы добиться постепенных, устойчивых улучшений качества питьевой воды.
Water safety planning for small community water supplies – ENGLISH
This manual is designed to engage, empower and guide communities in the WSP development and implementation process. Guidance is provided on how to develop and implement a WSP through six achievable tasks. By following the WSP approach as described in this manual, small communities can improve the management of their drinking-water systems to achieve incremental and sustainable improvements in their drinking-water quality.
Unauthorised access to the network
It is the experience of many water suppliers that illegal or unauthorised access to the distribution network can occur for a variety of reasons. This poses a number of water quality risks and can also create wider problems related to loss of revenue. This document briefly summarises the water quality risks associated with unauthorised access and how they can be mitigated.
Plans de Sécurité Sanitaire des Eaux de consommation (PSSE) Etudes de cas en Nouvelle-Calédonie
French version. This document describes the WSP implementation process in New Caledonia (French territory in the Pacific Ocean) for 13 municipalities that started in 2008. It describes the risk assessment and management tools used, the benefits achieved, the challenges and solutions to those challenges and the overall lessons learned.
Drinking Water Safety Planning: A practical guide for the Pacific Island countries
This document is a guideline for development and implementation of Water Safety Plans approach in the Pacific. It is primarily for water supply managers, engineers and operators and introduces a more proactive way of managing drinking water supplies through a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach. Implementing DWSPs helps achieve a more effective drinking water supply system.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Yarra Valley Water, Australia
This case study provides an example of a water supplier in Australia which has undertaken research to understand consumer expectations in relation to water quality. This includes the use of surveys and focus groups. It also describes the approach the company takes to handling, recording, and reviewing complaints.
План обеспечения безопасности воды: практическое руководство по повышению безопасности питьевой воды в небольших местных общинах
Снабжение приемлемой и безопасной питьевой водой в достаточном количестве является одной из основных необходимых предпосылок хорошего здоровья, экономического развития и устойчивой жизнедеятельности семей в сельских сообществах. Подход с использованием плана безопасности воды (ПБВ) является наиболее эффективным путем обеспечения питьевой водой в условиях маломасштабных систем водоснабжения.
В данных рекомендациях приводятся поэтапное описание подхода ПБВ и целый ряд готовых к использованию схем в помощь тем, кто занимается вопросами сельского водоснабжения на местном уровне, в разработке и осуществлении своих собственных ПБВ.
Рекомендации прежде всего адресованы членам сельских сообществ, отвечающих за организацию работы и управление системами водоснабжения, а также сотрудникам местных органов здравоохранения и водоснабжения, ответственных за обеспечение качества питьевой воды, и неправительственным организациям, оказывающим поддержку в области обеспечения безопасности питьевой воды в сельской местности.
Water safety plan manual
Water safety plans (WSPs) are the most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply. This WSP manual describes how to develop and implement a WSP in clear and practical terms. Stepwise advice is provided through 11 learning modules, each representing a key step in the WSP development and implementation process.
Treated water storage
This document summarises the type of risks that might occur within treated water storages and how to control them.
Philippines: Water safety plan
Under AusAid funding, WHO supported WSP implementation in the Philippines. This case study reports on key WSP facts, and describes the status of water supply in the Philippines
Corrosion and mains sediments
This document summarises the drinking-water quality risks associated with corrosion and sediment accumulation within distribution networks and describes ways that the risks can be mitigated.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Lyonnaise des Eaux, France
This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in France has established a system to collect consumer acceptability data via a group of volunteers. It provides one particular approach to the collection of opinions on the taste and odour of water supplied.
Иметь большие планы, начинать с малого, расширять масштабы Дорожная карта для оказания поддержки в реализации на уровне стран планов обеспечения безопасности воды
Предпринимая постоянные усилия по повышению безопасности питьевой воды и улучшению здоровья населения, многие страны запросили методические рекомендации о том, как внедрить и расширить масштабы реализации планов обеспечения безопасности воды (ПОБВ). Какой-то одной модели или одного способа, который можно было бы применить для того, чтобы приступить к реализации ПОБВ и затем расширить ее масштабы, нет. Однако накопленный опыт позволяет обозначить ряд шагов, или этапов, которые показывают, как это можно сделать.
Предлагаемая “Дорожная карта” для реализации ПОБВ предназначена для органов государственного управления и нормативного регулирования, которые отвечают за пересмотр действующих или разработку новых стратегий, программ и нормативов в области питьевого водоснабжения. Она также может оказаться полезной для негосударственных организаций, финансирующих учреждений и других структур, заинтересованных в улучшении имеющихся у них программ и практики работы.
Development and implementation of water safety plans for small scale supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned
This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use.
Training workbook on Water Safety Planning Urban systems
The objective of this workbook is to serve as a guide to facilitate WSP development for an organised water supply that is managed by a water utility or similar entity. WSPs can be tailored differently for each specific water supply system. This workbook is generic and is not specific to any particular country. It is anticipated that trainers in each country would develop their own WSP training material which would be linked directly to country drinking water standards and implementing guidelines as well as bring written in other appropriate languages.
Pacific Drinking Water Safety Planning Lessons Learned
This case study provides the progress and lessons learned form the implementation of the Pacific Drinking Water Safety Plan programme.