WSP summary of benefits and costs
Before implementation of a WSP it is important to clearly identify the expected benefits and the associated costs both of which could be significant. This will help secure the support of senior management, ensure that sufficient resources are made available and allow much more targeted and efficient implementation. The actual benefits and costs of WSP implementation will vary considerably from utility to utility. This document sets out a summary of the issues that need to be taken into account.
A guide to conducting household surveys for Water Safety Plans
The aim of this manual is to provide guidance on conducting a household survey as part of a Water Safety Plan for organized piped water supply systems in resource-limited settings. A household survey can help researchers to understand the fate of water from the time it reaches the home to the point of consumption. This survey contributes to Module 2 (System Assessment) of the Water Safety Plan, upon which the subsequent steps of hazard identification, consideration of control measures, and development of corrective actions, monitoring, and verification plans are based. Thus, the survey provides valuable information for the WSP team as the team goes through the process of system evaluation and implementation of changes resulting from the Water Safety Plan. Specific examples intended to guide the planner in designing the survey are provided in the appendices. A summary checklist for survey planning and completion is provided as Appendix A.
A Conceptual Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Water Safety Plans
This paper outlines a conceptual framework for conducting this type of overall evaluation of the impacts of a WSP. Drawing examples from existing WSPs in various regions, the framework also illustrates the types of intermediate outcomes that can be expected during WSP implementation. This conceptual framework, which requires some familiarity with WSPs, is designed to be one of a set of tools to guide the implementation and evaluation of Water Safety Plans, along with the WHO guidelines (WHO, 2006), the Water Safety Plan Manual (Bartram et al, 2009) and other tools and resources developed for national or regional use1
Corrosion and mains sediments
This document summarises the drinking-water quality risks associated with corrosion and sediment accumulation within distribution networks and describes ways that the risks can be mitigated.
Être ambitieux, s’engager prudemment, puis élargir le champ d’action
Dans le cadre des efforts continus en faveur de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau de boisson et de la santé, de nombreux pays ont demandé des orientations concernant la façon d’introduire des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau (PGSSE) et d’élargir leur mise en oeuvre. Il n’existe ni modèle ni façon unique de procéder en la matière.
Néanmoins, en se fondant sur l’expérience, une succession d’étapes décrivant comment y parvenir a été définie. Cette « feuille de route » relative aux PGSSE est destinée aux gouvernements et aux autorités chargés de concevoir ou de réviser les réglementations, programmes, et politiques relatifs à l’eau de boisson. Elle peut également se révéler utile pour les distributeurs d’eau et les autres organisations intéressées par l’amélioration des pratiques existantes.
Unauthorised access to the network
It is the experience of many water suppliers that illegal or unauthorised access to the distribution network can occur for a variety of reasons. This poses a number of water quality risks and can also create wider problems related to loss of revenue. This document briefly summarises the water quality risks associated with unauthorised access and how they can be mitigated.
Directives de qualité pour l’eau de boisson: Quatrième édition intégrant le premier additif
La quatrième édition des Lignes directrices de l'OMS pour la qualité de l'eau potable s'appuie sur plus de 50 ans d'orientations sur la qualité de l'eau potable qui font autorité en matière de mesures de santé publique lorsqu’il s’agit de mettre en place des réglementations et des normes nationales pour garantir la sécurité de l'eau.
C'est le produit de révisions significatives pour clarifier les recommandations et apporter des moyens de les mettre en œuvre en sachant identifier les dangers, gérer les risques en adoptant des indicateurs sanitaires, des plans de sécurité des eaux de captation et un système de surveillance indépendant.
Le premier addendum met à jour cette quatrième édition, apporte de nouveaux éléments de preuve et des explications supplémentaires pour mieux comprendre les directives et les mettre en œuvre.
Ces lignes directrices s’adressent principalement aux responsables de la réglementation dans le domaine de l’eau et de la santé, aux décideurs et à leurs conseillers, et ont pour objectif d’aider lors de la mise au point de normes nationales. Elles sont aussi utilisées, ainsi que les documents associés, par comme source d’informations sur la qualité et l’hygiène de l’eau et sur les stratégies de gestion efficaces.
Руководство по обеспечению качества питьевой воды, четвертое издание
В настоящее издание Руководства по обеспечению качества питьевой воды включено опубликованное в 2004 году третье издание, а также первое дополнение к третьему изданию, опубликованное в 2006 году, и второе дополнение к третьему изданию, опубликованное в 2008 году. Настоящее издание заменяет собой предыдущие издания Руководства и Международные стандарты.
В этом издании Руководства далее развиваются концепции, подходы и информация, содержащиеся в предыдущих изданиях, и в том числе впервые изложенный в третьем издании комплексный подход к профилактическому управлению риском в целях обеспечения качества питьевой воды.
Данное Руководство адресовано в первую очередь регулирующим органам систем водоснабжения и здравоохранения, директивным органам и их консультантам в целях оказания помощи в разработке национальных стандартов. Руководство и связанные с ним документы также используются многими другими в качестве источника информации по вопросам обеспечения качества воды и охраны здоровья, а также по эффективным подходам к управлению.
Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation
This guidebook, released by UNEP Risoe Center, describes adaptation strategies in the categories of water conservation; storm water control and capture; resilience to water quality degradation; preparation for extreme weather events; diversification of water supply; and mitigation. It has been made widely available and will help both developed and developing countries understand means of increasing resilience to the uncertain effects of future climate change. The Water Institute at UNC provided technical and methodological expertise.
Water safety in buildings
Provides guidance for those responsible for managing water supply systems in buildings on applying the WSP approach to improve risk management and ensure water safety is maintained within the building.
This document provides guidance for managing water supplies in buildings where people may drink water; use water for food preparation; wash, shower, swim or use water for other recreational activities; or be exposed to aerosols produced by water-using devices, such as cooling towers. These uses occur in a variety of buildings, such as hospitals, schools, child and aged care, medical and dental facilities, hotels, apartment blocks, sport centres, commercial buildings and transport terminals.
Treated water storage
This document summarises the type of risks that might occur within treated water storages and how to control them.
Rapid gravity filters-water quality benefits and risks
Rapid gravity filters are used extensively in many waterworks across the world where they provide a critical part of the water purification process. This document summarises the basic functions and operation of such filters and identifies possible risks to water quality which need to be assessed and managed as part of a treatment water safety plan.
Strategic Recommendations for Climate Smart Water Utilities: Using the Flood and Drought Portal in Planning
The effect of climate change on the hydrological cycle is becoming a growing phenomenon and resulting in impacts including flood and drought events, disappearance of glaciers, decrease in groundwater recharge, and water quality degradation (e.g. oxygen depletion in water reservoirs during extreme heat events) (WHO, 2017).
Such events are becoming increasingly common, more severe and less predictable with increasing climate variability and change. Stakeholders from catchment to tap have a role to play in strengthening climate resilience. Water utilities, in particular, need to have sustainable and resilient water resources management to ensure water supply continuity and to fulfill their responsibility to deliver safe and secure water to their customers.
This document focuses on strategic recommendations for water utilities on:
- Why and how water utilities can integrate climate change impacts into planning and management of water resources, specifically through WSPs; and
- How to use the Flood and Drought Portal (www.flooddroughtmonitor.com), to better include climate data and information into WSP, ensuring its climate resilience
Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans Guideline: Rural Water Supply System
Based on international best practice and Nepal's Department of Water Supply & Sanitation experiences, these guidelines have been developed to support rural water supply schemes to development and implement an effective climate resilient WSP in rural settings.
Protecting groundwater for health: managing the quality of drinking-water sources
Provides guidance for health, environment and water sector professionals on the application of risk management approaches to protect groundwater sources of drinking-water, presenting a structured approach to analyzing hazards to groundwater quality, assessing and prioritizing the risks they pose, and developing management strategies for their control.
Consumer Acceptability Case Study: Dunedin City Council, New Zealand
This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in New Zealand operates a Service Centre to respond quickly to customer complaints and assesses levels of consumer acceptability through analysis of complaint data and questionnaires.
Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans Guideline: Urban Water Supply System
These guidelines have been developed to support urban water supply schemes in Nepal to development and implement climate resilient WSPs.
Lessons learned from development WSP in Jamaica
This document is a technical paper following the "Spanish town Jamaica Case study". It describes the lessons learned from the development of the Water Safety Plan for the Spanish town water supply system in Jamaica.
Spanish Town, Jamaica Case Study
Presents the WSP for Spanish Town, Jamaica, which may provide an example approach for WSP development for WSP community at an early stage of WSP development
Backsiphonage into the distribution network
This document sets out information which allows water suppliers and others to work together to minimise the risk of backsiophange (that is, the reverse flow condition created by a difference in water pressures that causes water and associated contaminants to flow back into drinking-water distribution pipes).
Implementation of WSP New Caledonia
This document describes the WSP implementation process in New Caledonia (French territory in the Pacific Ocean) for 13 municipalities that started in 2008. It describes the risk assessment and management tools used, the benefits achieved, the challenges and solutions to those challenges and the overall lessons learned.
Pacific Drinking Water Safety Planning Lessons Learned
This case study provides the progress and lessons learned form the implementation of the Pacific Drinking Water Safety Plan programme.
Water safety in distribution systems
Water quality deterioration in distribution systems, mainly caused by inappropriate planning, design and construction or inadequate operation and maintenance and water quality control, has been linked to a significant proportion of the burden of waterborne and water-related illness. Stresses on these systems caused by rapid urbanization, population growth and aging infrastructure further exacerbates the problems. This reference tool has been developed to help water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the Water Safety Plan approach, enhance their risk assessment and management and investment planning for their water distribution systems.
Water safety plans in the European region: Promotional video
Small-scale systems are an important component of water supply in the WHO European Region, and Water Safety Plans (WSPs) are regarded the most effective approach to ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water.
The above is a short promotional video on WSPs in the WHO European Region.
WOPs Manila and Danang on Water quality improvement
Da Nang Water Supply Company (DAWACO) and Manila Water Company, Inc. (Manila Water) engaged in a water operator partnership (WOP) to help DAWACO meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards for water quality in their pipe network. Through the partnership, 20,000 residents received improved access to water, and DAWACO increased staff capacity to scale up similar improvements in the remainder of DAWACO’s service area.
Chemical safety of drinking-water: Assessing priorities for risk management
This text provides guidance on the chemical safety of drinking-water. Chemical contaminants of drinking-water are often considered a lower priority than microbial contaminants, because adverse health effects from chemical contaminants are generally associated with long-term exposures, whereas the effects from microbial contaminants are usually immediate. Nonetheless, chemicals in water supplies can cause very serious problems. The objective of this text is to help users at national or local level to establish which chemicals in a particular setting should be given priority in developing strategies for risk management and monitoring of chemicals in drinking-water. The document will be useful to public health authorities, those responsible for setting standards and for surveillance of drinking-water quality, and to water supply agencies responsible for water quality management. In particular, this publication will be applicable in settings where information on actual drinking-water quality is limited, which is the case in many developing countries and in rural areas of some developed countries.
Household water use and health assessment Spanish Town Jamaica
This case study describes a randomized household survey and the collection and testing of drinking water samples from sources (household tap, public standpipe, rainwater, etc.) and household storage containers in Spanish Town Jamaica, with linkages to water safety planning.
Health aspects of plumbing
This text describes the processes involved in the design, installation and maintenance of effective plumbing systems. It also examines the microbiological, chemical, physical and financial risks associated with plumbing and emphasizes the importance of measures to conserve supplies of safe drinking-water. It is aimed at administrators and plumbers working in areas that are served by a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system, or are about to install a mains drinking-water supply or sewerage system.
Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia
In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.
Plans de Sécurité Sanitaire des Eaux de consommation (PSSE) Etudes de cas en Nouvelle-Calédonie
French version. This document describes the WSP implementation process in New Caledonia (French territory in the Pacific Ocean) for 13 municipalities that started in 2008. It describes the risk assessment and management tools used, the benefits achieved, the challenges and solutions to those challenges and the overall lessons learned.
Consumer Acceptability Data Case Study: Lyonnaise des Eaux, France
This case study provides an example of where a water supplier in France has established a system to collect consumer acceptability data via a group of volunteers. It provides one particular approach to the collection of opinions on the taste and odour of water supplied.
Case Study on Water Safety Plan Implementation and Lessons Learned: WSP auditing Victoria Australia
This case study describes the implementation of WSP and lessons learned in Victoria Australia. This case study has a specific focus on auditing WSPS.
Comparative evaluation of risk management frameworks for U.S. source waters
The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk management frameworks and tools might benefit U.S. utilities by combining a literature review with external utility interviews. Qualitative data provided a basis for categorical assignments of goodness of fit
with each of 24 framework evaluation criteria across five categories. Weighted integration using stakeholder input provided a relative ranking of applicability, later validated at a decision-making workshop. Hybridization of the American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association (ANSI/AWWA G300) source water protection standard and World Health Organization Water Safety Plan guidance was recommended to develop a comprehensive risk management approach for U.S. source waters. Cost–benefit components of other guidance materials were recommended to incorporate financial considerations into risk ranking and mitigation decisions.
Protecting surface water for health
Protecting surface water for health provides a structured approach to understanding surface waters and their catchments to support the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risks, and the development of management strategies for their control, as a basis for providing safe drinking-water.
The book provides guidance and supporting information on the development and application of water safety plans, which represent best practice to address the assessment and control of surface-water hazards in drinking-water catchments.
Rural WSP template for Sri Lanka
This resource provides a template for a WSP for a rural community in Sri Lanka which has been customized and tailored to the local context through a pilot programme.
Important note - This template should be adapted and trialed before being used in a different context.
Water safety plans: managing drinking-water quality for public health
A brief note on the rationale for the WSP approach, the potential benefits for various stakeholder groups, and the value of incorporating WSPs into policies and regulations.
Household Water Use and Health Survey for the WSP Linden Guyana
This Household Water Use and Health Survey was therefore conducted as part of the Water Safety Plan for Linden, Guyana in order to understand the fate of water from the time it reaches the home to the point of consumption. It illustrates the sampling, the household visits, the water testing, the data management and discusses the results from the survey.
Economics of WSP: an advocacy tool
This paper describes an economic cost-benefit analysis of the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan from Palau to demonstrate the value to society of the drinking water safety planning approach in the long term. The cost-benefit analysis for implementing the Koror-Airai drinking water safety plan showed that a return of US$ 6.00 was expected on every US$ 1.00 invested towards implementing the plan. The case study provides an effective advocacy tool for the promotion of drinking water safety planning both in the Pacific region and globally.
Potable reuse: Guidance for producing safe drinking-water
In response to growing pressures on available water resources, potable reuse represents a practical source of drinking-water in many circumstances.
This document describes how to apply appropriate management systems to produce safe drinking-water from municipal wastewater. Information is provided on specific aspects of potable reuse, including the quality and protection of source wastewaters, types of control measures, monitoring considerations and public acceptance. Application of potable reuse is also illustrated through a number of case studies.
The guidance is intended for use by drinking-water suppliers and regulators who are familiar with the WHO’s Guidelines for drinking-water quality and, in particular, the framework for safe drinking-water, including water safety plans. This publication may also be useful to others with an interest in potable reuse including environmental health and water resource professionals.
Conducting consumer surveys of water acceptability
Communication with consumers is a key part of assessing and promoting the acceptability of drinking water supplies with consumers. The evaluation of consumer acceptability and knowledge of consumer complaints are important components of assessing the overall effectiveness of a WSP and an essential part of the verification of a WSP. This document summarises the main approaches to the collection and analysis of consumer acceptability through surveys.